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ISSN: 2250–3005 (online version)
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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 2, Issue 5, September, 2012

S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Design and Analysis of HP steam turbine casing for Transient state condition


J.Ramesh, C.Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, Dr. B. Jayachandraiah

Abstract

Transient regimes arising during start-ups, shut-downs and load changes give rise to unsteady temperature distribution with time in steam turbine casing high pressure (HP) which results in non-uniform strain and stress distribution. So that problems such as stress corrosion, cracking and fatigue of steam turbine casing, In this work the thermo mechanical analysis of steam turbine casing will be established by finite element method. In this work the temperature and stress distributions for turbine inner casing were calculated by finite element analysis. The three dimensional model of the Steam Turbine Casing was created using the CATIA software. The model was meshed using software HYPERMESH. Boundary conditions were given on the finite element model through ANSYS. In this paper, the transient temperatures and stresses distributions within a turbine inner casing were achieved from actual operation data during cold start-up. The paper analyses the creap, centrifugal stress sub stained at high temperature in thermal stresses setup during the startup and shutdown the stream turbine and most serious thread of the rotor blades near the bore, creep cracks to initiates go to size which could results brittle fracture of the rotor blades. Due to crackness life of the steam turbine decreases.

Keywords: Transient condition, 3-D model, Hypermesh, FE model, Thermal expansion
1173-1178  
03.3005/02511731178
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2.

Performance Analysis of SPIN and LEACH Routing Protocol in WSN

Geetu, Sonia Juneja

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have emerged as a technology that are being quickly adopted due to their flexibility and use in a variety of environments. However, they consist of small, inexpensive devices or nodes that have severe constraints such as limited bandwidth, limited processing power, short battery life, small storage capability and are physically prone to external threats [1]. Sensor Network are emerging as a new tool for important application in diverse fields like military surveillance, habitat monitoring, weather, home electrical appliances and others. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. The energy efficiency is an important issue in WSN. Routing protocols makes the transmission in an efficient manner and ensures reliable delivery over multiple-hop relay in WSN. This paper analyses performance of the routing protocols.

KKeywords: Wireless sensor networks LEACH and SPIN routing protocols, network structure, and energy efficiency.
1179-1185  
03.3005/02511791185
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3.

Shortest Path Finding Using Spatial Ranking

B.PADMAJA, R.SATEESH, K.DHANASREE

Abstract

The k nearest neighbor object to a point in space is the most regularly used query in finding shortest path of a given network. In this paper we present an efficient pruning method to find the nearest neighbor to a point for finding the shortest path. Finally we present the results of several experiments obtained using the implementation of our algorithm and examine the behavior of the metrics and scalability of the algorithm.

Keywords: Spatial, Ranking, Nearest Neighbor, Shortest path, MBR, R-Tree/strong>
1186-1189  
03.3005/02511861189
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4.

Design of Test Data Compressor/Decompressor Using Xmatchpro Method

C. Suneetha,V.V.S.V.S.Ramachandram

Abstract

Higher Circuit Densities in system-on-chip (SOC) designs have led to drastic increase in test data volume. Larger Test Data size demands not only higher memory requirements, but also an increase in testing time. Test Data Compression/Decompression addresses this problem by reducing the test data volume without affecting the overall system performance. This paper presented an algorithm, XMatchPro Algorithm that combines the advantages of dictionary-based and bit mask-based techniques. Our test compression technique used the dictionary and bit mask selection methods to significantly reduce the testing time and memory requirements. We have applied our algorithm on various benchmarks and compared our results with existing test compression/Decompression techniques. Our approach results compression efficiency of 92%. Our approach also generates up to 90% improvement in decompression efficiency compared to other techniques without introducing any additional performance or area overhead.

Key words: XMatchPro, decompression, test compression, dictionary selection, SOC.
1190-1199  
03.3005/02511901199
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5.

Tree Based Parity Check Scheme for Data Hiding

Sampath Kumar Dara, Harshavardhan Awari

Abstract

The information hiding deals with distortion reduction using steganography and security enhancement using cryptography. Distortion reduction is done using Tree Based Parity Check which uses Majority vote strategy. The Tree Based Parity Check is very optimal for cloaking a message on image. The proposed majority vote strategy results in least distortion. The SHA-1 algorithm is implemented for security enhancement. The result obtained in proposed method works effectively even with large payload.

Keywords: Image coding, information security,
1200-1202  
03.3005/02512001202
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6.

Speed Control of Induction Motor using Fuzzy PI Controller Based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation

Yakala Satyanarayana, Dr.A.Srujana

Abstract

The aim of this paper is that it shows the dynamics response of speed with design the fuzzy logic controller to control a speed of motor for keeping the motor speed to be constant when the load varies. In recent years, the field oriented control of induction motor drive is widely used in high performance drive system. It is due to its unique characteristics like high efficiency, good power factor and extremely rugged. This paper presents design and implements a voltage source inverter type space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) for control a speed of induction motor. This paper also introduces a fuzzy logic controller to the SVPWM in order to keep the speed of the motor to be constant when the load varies. FLC is used to control the pulse width of the PWM converter used to control the speed of the motor.


Key words: Fuzzy logic control (FLC), Fuzzy PI controller, Induction motor, Membership Function, Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation(SVPWM)
1203-1209  
03.3005/02512031209
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7.

Animal Sign language recognition using MEMS

R.BHARATH, DR S.A.K JILANI

Abstract

Mple dog's express their feelings by oscillating his tail. Similarly cows express their feelings with his feet, neck and tail. Every feeling has its distinct body movements. So by placing this model on their communicating body part we transform the animal feelings into words and phrases. This model also helps the deaf and dumb community to communicate with others in oral langage. Prototype of sign language recognition consists of ADXL335 accelerometer interfaced with PIC micro controller 16F873A. The interfacing program is written in embedded 'C' language and it is compiled with Hi-tech compiler. The accelerometer data is processed in PC using neural network pattern recognition tool available in MATLAB. In this model we transformed six American Sign Language postures into words. We proposed two algorithms based on Euclidean distance metric and neural network pattern recognition tool with spline interpolation technique achieving an overall l efficiency of 80% and 83.3% respectively. Former algorithm is preferred because here we achieve an efficiency varying from 70% to 90% where as in Euclidean distance algorithm efficiency varies from 0% to 100%

Keywords: ASL, Euclidean distance, nprtool, MEMS accelerometer, animal sign language, spline interpolation, interpolation technique.
1210-1214  
03.3005/02512101214
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9

Explicit Study on Procedures on Content-Based Image Retrieval in Medical Imaging

Mr. Shivamurthy R C, Dr. B.P. Mallikarjunaswamy

Abstract

the advancement in the field of medical imaging system has lead industries to conceptualize a complete automated system for the medical procedures, diagnosis, treatment and prediction. The success of such system largely depends upon the robustness, accuracy and speed of the retrieval systems. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) system is valuable in medical systems as it provides retrieval of the images from the large dataset based on similarities. There is a continuous research in the area of CBIR systems typically for medical images, which provides a successive algorithm development for achieving generalized methodologies, which could be widely used. The aim of this paper is to discuss the various techniques, the assumptions and its scope suggested by various researchers and setup a further roadmap of the research in the field of CBIR system for medical image database. This is a novel approach to provide a typical insight to the prospective researchers, which is unique of its kind.

Keywords: Digital Images, Medical Imaging, Cbir,
1220-1225  
03.3005/02512201225
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10

Oscillating Supersonic delta wing with Straight Leading Edges

 Asha Crasta, S.A. Khan

Abstract

A Supersonic similitude has been used to obtain stability derivatives in pitch and roll of a delta wing with straight leading edge for the attached shock case. Ghosh‟s strip theory is been used in which strips at different span wise locations are independent of each other. This combines with the similitude to give a piston theory which gives the closed form of solution to stability derivatives in pitch and roll. Some of the results obtained have been compared with those of Hui et al ,Ghosh and Lui &Hui. Results have been obtained for supersonic flow of perfect gas over a wide range of Mach numbers, incidences and sweep angles.

Keywords: Aspect ratio, Attached shock wave, Delta wings, Damping derivative, Leading edge, Rolling derivative, Stiffness derivative, Supersonic Flow, unsteady flow.
1226-1233  
03.3005/02512261233
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11

Securing IPv6's Neighbour Discovery, using Locally Authentication

 M. N. Doja, Ravish Saggar

Abstract

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), in IPv6, allowed nodes to Autoconfigure using neighbour discovery protocol. Neighbour Discovery (ND) and Address auto- configuration mechanisms may be protected with IPSec Authentication Header (AH). Protecting all traffic will include Address Resolution Protocol. To protect this, IPSec will need agreed Key. For Key setup, UDP packet is sent, which requires IPSec for secure communication. So IPSec requires Agreed Key and for Key setup IPSec is needed, this creates a loop. To solve this problem Locally Authentication Process is presented in this paper. This process will provide a certificate of ownership of IP address on network Interface card and Public key to provide authorization. On the other hand, it will also reduce the network load.

Keywords: Stateless Address Auto-configuration, Neighbour Discovery, Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA), Secure Neighbour Discovery (SEND), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Digital Certificate, Security Attacks in IPv6.
1234-1242  
03.3005/02512341242
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12

Performance Analysis of Optimization Tool for Speech Recognition Using LPC & DSK TMS3206711/13 Using Simulink & Matlab

 Kadam V.K, Dr.R.C.Thool

Abstract

In this we have used various analysis tools like impulse response, frequency response, phase response etc. to get the performance analysis of said system. Here we implement a speech compression technique known as Linear Prediction Coding (LPC) using DSP System Toolbox from Matlab functionality available at the MATLAB command line. In this system we use the Levinson-Durbin and Time-Varying Lattice Filter blocks for low-bandwidth transmission of speech using linear predictive coding. We have changed the various order of the filter for various speeches signal & optimized that. We have received which is reflected in the figures given below.

Keywords: Introduction, System Implementation, Performance Analysis, Figures and Graphs, Conclusion, References, Lpc
1243-1248  
03.3005/02512431248
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13

Convexity of Minimal Total Dominating Functions Of Quadratic
Residue Cayley Graphs

 S.Jeelani Begum B.Maheswari

Abstract

Nathanson [17] paved the way for the emergence of a new class of graphs, namely,Arithmetic Graphs by introducing the concepts of Number Theory, particularly, the Theory of congruences in Graph Theory. Cayley graphs are another class of graphs associated with the elements of a group. If this group is associated with some arithmetic function then the Cayley graph becomes an arithmetic graph. Domination theory is an important branch of Graph Theory and has many applications in Engineering, Communication Networks and many others. In this paper we study the minimal total dominating functions of Quadratic Residue Cayley graphs and discuss the convexity of these functions in different cases.

Keywords: Arithmetic graph, Cayley graph, Total dominating set, Neighbourhood set, Quadratic Residue Cayley Graph, Total Dominating Functions, Minimal Total Dominating Functions, Convexity.
1249-1253  
03.3005/02512491253
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14

Classification of Lung Tumor Using SVM

 Ms. Swati P. Tidke, Prof. Vrishali A. Chakkarwar

Abstract

Lung cancer is the most important cause of cancer death for both men and women. Early detection is very important to enhance a patient‟s chance for survival of lung cancer. This paper provides a Computer Aided Diagnosis System (CAD) for early detection of lung cancer nodules from the Chest Computer Tomography (CT) images. There are five main phases involved in the proposed CAD system. They are image pre-processing, extraction of lung region from chest computer tomography images, segmentation of lung region, feature extraction from the segmented region, classification of lung cancer as benign or malignant. Initially total variation based denoising is used for image denoising, and then segmentation is performed using optimal thresholding and morphological operations. Textural features extracted from the lung nodules using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). For classification, SVM classifier is used. The main aim of the method is to develop a CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis) system for finding the lung tumor using the lung CT images and classify the tumor as Benign or Malignant.

Keywords: Computer Aided Diagnosis System, optimal thresholding, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), Support vector machine (SVM).
1254-1257  
03.3005/02512541257
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15

SD-miner System to Retrieve Probabilistic Neighborhood Points in Spatial Data Mining

 Asst. Prof. S. G. Kulkarni, Asst. Prof. Padma D, Mr. Manjunath R. H

Abstract

In GIS or Geographic Information system technology, a vast volume of spatial data has been accumulated, thereby incurring the necessity of spatial data mining techniques. Displaying and visualizing such data items are important aspects. But no RDBMS software is loaded with displaying the spatial result over a MAP overlay or answer spatial queries like "all the points within" certain Neighborhood. In this project, we propose a new spatial data mining system named SD-Miner. SD-Miner consists of three parts: A Graphical User Interface for inputs and outputs, a Data Mining Module that processes spatial data mining functionalities, a Data Storage Model that stores and manages spatial as well as non-spatial data by using a DBMS. In particular, the data mining module provides major spatial data mining functionalities such as spatial clustering, spatial classification, spatial characterization, and spatio-temporal association rule mining. SD-Miner has its own characteristics: (1) It supports users to perform non-spatial data mining functionalities as well as spatial data mining functionalities intuitively and effectively. (2) It provides users with spatial data mining functions as a form of libraries, thereby making applications conveniently use those functions. (3) It inputs parameters for mining as a form of database tables to increase flexibility. Result shows that significantly reduced and precise data items are displayed through the result of this technique.
1258-1262  
03.3005/02512581262
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16

Implementation of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm Using Variable Text Based Message Encryption

 Jayabhaskar Muthukuru, Prof. Bachala Sathyanarayana

Abstract

Digital Signatures are considered as digital counterparts to handwritten signatures, and they are the basis for validating the authenticity of a connection. It is well known that with the help of digital signature, forgery of digital information can be identified and it is widely used in e-commerce and banking applications. Elliptic curve digital signatures (ECDSA) are stronger and ideal for constrained environments like smart cards due to smaller bit size, thereby reducing processing overhead. We have implemented ECDSA over Elliptic Curve (EC) P-192 and P-256 using various Text Message encryptions which are Variable Size Text Message(VTM), Fixed Size Text Message(FTM) and Text Based Message(TBM) encryption methods and compared their performance.

Keywords: Digital Signature, Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, ECDLP.
1263-1271  
03.3005/02512631271
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17

Colorization Of Gray Image In Lαβ Color Space Using Texture Mapping And Luminance Mapping

 Mrs. Smriti Kumar, Mr.Deepak Singh

Abstract

Gray Scale image colorization is an appealing area in the world of image processing. This work presents a simple process for colorizing gray image, using a colored image which is similar to this gray scale image but not the colorized version of the gray image. Here we convert both these images to a decorrelated color space lαβ and then divide these images into small windows of equal size, then we calculate mean and standard deviation for data points based on luminance values in each of these windows to compute a luminance measure and we also extract texture features like energy, entropy, contrast, correlation and homogeneity based on correlation matrix for each of these windows. We apply proper weights to these texture features to calculate a texture similarity measure and then calculate a similarity measure based on the texture similarity measure and luminance measure for each of these windows in both the images. Then we compare each window in gray scale image with every other window in colored image using this similarity measure and find the best matching window. Then the chromatic properties of some randomly selected data points of this colored window are transferred to the gray window pixel by pixel, based on the luminance mapping and thus colorization of gray scale image is achieved, which produces believable results.

Keywords: Colorization, Contrast, Correlation, Energy, Entropy, Gray Scale Images, Homogeneity, lαβ Color Space, Luminance Measure, Mean And Standard Deviation, Similarity Measure, Texture Feature, Texture Similarity Measure.
1272-1278  
03.3005/02512721278
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18

Weighted Analysis on Evaluation Criteria of the Most Advantageous Bid

 Han-Chen Huang

Abstract

In procurement operations, if the lowest bid proposed by a vendor is accepted as the awarding criterion that is less than the base price, it is not uncommon that the bidder may first offer an unreasonably low price to gain the right to supply, and then provide low-quality products in the future. Regardless of whether this fraudulent behavior can be identified, the company or agency inviting the bid is consequently impeded from receiving products that meet their needs. To address this issue, the most advantageous bid (MAB) method can be adopted as an alternative awarding criterion. However, when practicing MAB, the weighting of evaluation criteria and sub-criteria frequently presents a challenge for companies or government agencies offering an invitation for bid. Based on extant literature on supplier evaluation theories, this study conducts interviews with experts to determine evaluation criteria and sub-criteria for MAB, and analyzes the weights of evaluation criteria and sub-criteria. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is performed to analyze the obtained MAB evaluation criteria and sub-criteria. The results of the study provide a reference for any company or government agency seeking to evaluate MAB.

Keywords: Lowest Bid, Most Advantageous Bid, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process.
1279-1282  
03.3005/02512791282
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19

Delaying Transmissions in Data Communication Networks to Improve

 Pangambam Uttam Kumar, Jyoti Gupta

Abstract

The performance improvement of the network with small buffers needs to be focused. The main factor that reduces the performance of the network is the packet loss in the network layer in the event of data transmission. Packet loss occurred due to bit errors in physical layer and congestion in network layer degrades the performance in the transport layer, in terms of delay and bandwidth. Existing approaches improving the performance of the transport layer requires either much delay or bandwidth. So, Queue Length Based Pacing (QLBP) is presented, which is a novel pacing algorithm that decreases the burstiness of network traffic by delaying packets based on the length of the local packet buffer. Stability control mechanism is applied as contribution which further reduces the packet loss. Simulation is performed over the network of dumbbell topology with QLBP technique using Network simulator 2 (NS 2). Performance metric such as throughput, delay, packets drops over buffer size is analyzed.

Keywords: Dumbbell Topology, Packet Drop, Propagation Delay, Small Buffer Network, TCP, Throughput, Traffic Pacing and Transport Layer.
1283-1295  
03.3005/02512831295
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20

Performance analysis of Energy detection, Matched filter detection & Cyclostationary feature detection Spectrum Sensing Techniques

 Mr. Pradeep Kumar Verma, Mr. Sachin Taluja, Prof. Rajeshwar Lal Dua

Abstract

The growing demand of wireless applications has put a lot of constraints on the usage of available radio spectrum which is limited and precious resource. However, a fixed spectrum assignment has lead to under utilization of spectrum as a great portion of licensed spectrum is not effectively utilized. Cognitive radio is a promising technology which provides a novel way to improve utilization efficiency of available electromagnetic spectrum. Spectrum sensing helps to detect the spectrum holes (underutilized bands of the spectrum) providing high spectral resolution capability. This is a review paper that compares the performance of three main spectrum sensing techniques.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio (CR), Energy Detection (ED), Matched Filter Detection (MFD), Cyclostationary feature Detection.
1296-1301  
03.3005/02512961301
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21

Landuse/Landcover Mapping of Achanakmar Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve, India Using Unsupervised Classification Technique

 Sateesh Karwariya, Shashikant Tripathi

Abstract

Achanakmar Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve located at the junction of hill ranges of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh state, India occupying total area of 3835.51sq.km. with topography ranging from high mountains, shallow valleys and plains. The core region of Achanakmar Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve falls in Chhattisgarh state lies between 22015' to 220 58' N and 810 25' to 820 50' E ,falls under the survey of India toposheet No. 64 F5,6,7,9,10,11,1314,15,64J1,J3.The Biosphere is bounded by Anuppur, Dindori and Bilaspur district. Landuse and Landcover is an important parameter for developmental planning. In the present study an attempt has been made to generate the landuse landcover map from IRS satellite image using unsupervised classification. The study is based on secondary data, and using ERDAS IMAGINE software for all processing of the study area. The satellite imagery has used to prepare the land use and land cover map using unsupervised classification. The land use and land cover map clearly shows that area of Forest land is higher than others. The main objective of this research paper is to analyzing the disturbance gradient in the Biosphere and development of wildlife information base including inventory data on habitats and species.

Keywords: Landuse, Landcover, LISS-3 Data, Biosphere reserve, Wildlife,Satellite imagery, Secondary Data Unsupervised classification technique.
1302-1305  
03.3005/02513021305
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22

A Data Throughput Prediction Using Scheduling And Assignment Technique

 M.Rajarajeswari , P.R.Kandasamy, T.Ravichandran

Abstract

Task computing is a computation to fill the gap between tasks (what user wants to be done), and services (functionalities that are available to the user). Task computing seeks to redefine how users interact with and use computing environments. Wide distributed many-task computing (MTC) environment aims to bridge the gap between two computing paradigms, high throughput computing (HTC) and high-performance computing (HPC). In a wide distributed many-task computing environment, data sharing between participating clusters may become a major performance constriction. In this project, we present the design and implementation of an application-layer data throughput prediction and optimization service for many-task computing in widely distributed environments using Operation research. This service uses multiple parallel TCP streams which are used to find maximum data distribution stream through assignment model which is to improve the end-to-end throughput of data transfers in the network. A novel mathematical model (optimization model) is developed to determine the number of parallel streams, required to achieve the best network performance. This model can predict the optimal number of parallel streams with as few as three prediction points (i.e. three Switching points). We implement this new service in the Stork Data Scheduler model, where the prediction points can be obtained using Iperf and GridFTP samplings technique. Our results show that the prediction cost plus the optimized transfer time is much less than the non optimized transfer time in most cases. As a result, Stork data model evaluates and transfer jobs with optimization service based sampling rate and no. of task is given as input, so our system can be completed much earlier, compared to non optimized data transfer jobs.

Keywords: Optimization, Assignment Technique, Stork scheduling Data throughput.
1306-1310  
03.3005/02513061310
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23

Effect of Traffic Type on the Performance of Table Driven and On Demand Routing Protocols of MANET

 Patil V.P.

Abstract

An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network. Routing in a MANET is challenging because of the dynamic topology and the lack of an existing fixed infrastructure. In such a scenario a mobile host can act as both a host and a router forwarding packets for other mobile nodes in the network. Routing protocols used in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) must adapt to frequent or continual changes of topology, while simultaneously limiting the impact of tracking these changes on wireless resources. In his paper investigation has been done on the effect of change in number of nodes on MANET routing protocols. Here, it has been analyzed and compared the performance of MANET routing protocols AODV and DSDV based on both CBR and TCP based traffic patterns. The NS-2 simulator is used for performing various simulations. Simulation results show that Reactive protocols better in terms of packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay.

Keywords: ASL, Euclidean distance, nprtool, MEMS accelerometer, animal sign language, spline interpolation, interpolation technique.
1311-1317  
03.3005/02513111317
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24

Case study of CAD Based Mammographic Lesions using Wavelet Decomposition

 Elayabharathi.T, Dr.Nagappan.A

Abstract

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1318-1323  
XXXXXXXXXXX
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25

Digital Video Watermarking Using Discrete Cosine Transform and Perceptual Analaysis

 B.R.Darshan, R.Triveni

Abstract

Due to the extensive use of digital media applications, multimedia security and copyright protection has gained tremendous importance. Digital Watermarking is a technology used for the copyright protection of digital applications. In this paper, a comprehensive approach for watermarking digital video is introduced. We propose a hybrid digital video watermarking scheme based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) The video frames are first decomposed using DCT and the binary watermark is embedded In this paper, we describe a visible watermarking scheme that is applied into the host video in the DCT domain. A mathematical model has been developed for that purpose. We have also proposed a modification of the algorithm to make the watermark more robust.
1324-1328  
03.3005/02513241328
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26

Web Personalization using Efficient Ontology Relations

 Mohd. Sadik Ahamad , S. Naga Raju

Abstract

on the last decades, the amount of web-based information available has increased dramatically. How to gather useful information from the web has become a challenging issue for users. Current web information gathering systems attempt to satisfy user requirements by capturing their information needs. For this purpose, user profiles are created for user background knowledge description. As a model for knowledge description and formalization, ontologies are widely used to represent user profiles in personalized web information gathering. However, when representing user profiles, many models have utilized only knowledge from either a global knowledge base or user local information. In this project, a personalized ontology model is proposed for knowledge representation and reasoning over user profiles.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Relations, Web Mining
1329-1332  
03.3005/02513291332
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27

Paired Triple Connected Domination Number of a Graph

 G. Mahadevan, Selvam Avadayappan, A.Nagarajan, A.Rajeswari, T. Subramanian

Abstract

The concept of triple connected graphs with real life application was introduced in [10] by considering the existence of a path containing any three vertices of G and also they studied their properties. In [2, 4], the authors introduced the concept of triple connected domination number and complementary triple connected domination number of a graph. In this paper, we introduce another new concept called paired triple connected domination number of a graph. A subset S of V of a nontrivial connected graph G is said to be paired triple connected dominating set, if S is a triple connected dominating set and the induced subgraph has a perfect matching. The minimum cardinality taken over all paired triple connected dominating sets is called the paired triple connected domination number and is denoted by ptc. We determine this number for some standard classes of graphs and obtain some bounds for general graph. Its relationship with other graph theoretical parameters are investigated.

Keywords: Domination Number, Triple connected graph, Paired triple connected domination number AMS (2010):05C69
1333-1338  
03.3005/02513331338
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28

Performance Evaluation of Various Foreground Extraction Algorithms for Object detection in Visual Surveillance

 Sudheer Reddy Bandi , A.Varadharajan , M.Masthan

Abstract

Detecting moving objects in video sequence with a lot of moving vehicles and other difficult conditions is a fundamental and difficult task in many computer vision applications. A common approach is based on background subtraction, which identifies moving objects from the input video frames that differs significantly from the background model. Numerous approaches to this problem differs in the type of background modeling technique and the procedure to update the model. In this paper, we have analysed three different background modeling techniques namely median, change detection mask and histogram based modeling technique and two background subtraction algorithms namely frame difference and approximate median. For all possible combinations of algorithms on various test videos we compared the efficiency and found that background modeling using median value and background subtraction using frame difference is very robust and efficient.

Keywords: Background Subtraction, Visual Surveillance, Threshold Value, Camera jitter, Foreground Detection, Change Detection Method, Mean.
1339-1343  
03.3005/02513391343
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29

Wavelet Transforms through Differential Privacy

 N SriDevi, V Sunitha

Abstract

Privacy preservation has become a major issue in many data analysis applications. When a data set is released to other parties for data analysis, privacy-preserving techniques are often required to reduce the possibility of identifying sensitive information about individuals. However, many solutions exist for privacy preserving data; differential privacy has emerged as a new paradigm for privacy protection with very conservative assumptions and guarantees the strongest privacy. In particular, for a count query answered by output data set, the noise in the result makes it vain as the result set could be equivalent to the number of Tuples in the data. This paper proposes a data publishing technique that not only ensures differential privacy, but also provides accurate results for all range-count queries, i.e., count queries where the predicate on each attribute is a range. The main aim of the solution provides a frame work called privelet that applies wavelet transforms s on the data before adding noise to it. This paper also outlines the instantiations of the Privelet for both ordinal and nominal data and theoretical Analysis is provided to prove the privacy guarantee of Privelet with the nominal wavelet transform.

Keywords: Privacy, Wavelet, Tuples, Dworks, Privelet.
1344-1351  
03.3005/02513441351
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30

Image compression Algorithm Implementation on Reconfigurable platform

 S.Vijayaraghavan, R.Jayalakshmi

Abstract

This paper presents an approach towards FPGA implementation for image compression. The design follows the JPEG2000 standard and can be used for both lossy and lossless compression. The embedded block coding with optimized truncation (EBCOT) is a key algorithm in JPEG 2000 image compression system. Various applications, such as medical imaging, satellite imagery, digital cinema, and others, require high speed, high performance EBCOT architecture. Though efficient EBCOT architectures have been proposed, hardware requirement of these existing architectures is very high and throughput is low. To solve this problem, the performance of the coder is improved and the entire design of EBCOT encoder is tested on the field programmable gate array platform.

Keywords: image compression, discrete wavelet transforms (DWT), JPEG 2000, and FPGA.
1352-1355  
03.3005/02513521355
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31

Institutional Knowledge to Institutional Intelligence: A Data Mining Enabled Knowledge Management Approach

 Bhusry Mamta

Abstract

Significant amount of knowledge is created in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) as a result of the academic, research and administrative activities. Deployment of the knowledge generated towards performance enhancement, decision making and process improvement will yield effective results such as enhanced planning and development, better administrative services, improved teaching and learning processes, effective faculty and student performance evaluation, efficient research, and better placements and recruitments. To generate the desired outcomes, the institutions need to better access, analyse and utilize the institutional knowledge for extracting the existing relationships, associations, patterns and trends in knowledge. The author proposes a tiered architecture for capture and storage of institutional knowledge and its transformation into institutional intelligence. The research adopts a three phase approach, the first phase consisting of identification of the functional domains and performance indicators that determine performance, the second phase being the proposed architecture and the third phase consists of modeling the architecture using knowledge management and data mining methods. This paper covers with the first two phases of the research and the third phase is proposed to be taken up as a future work.

Keywords:Data Mining, Functional Domains, Higher Educational Institutions, Institutional Intelligence, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Repository, Performance Indicators
1356-1360  
03.3005/02513561360
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32

Query Optimization Issues for Data Retrieval in Cloud Computing

 N.Samatha, K.Vijay Chandu , P.Raja Sekhar Reddy

Abstract

Cloud data storage redefines the issues targeted on customer's out-sourced data (data that is not stored/retrieved from the customers own servers). In this work we observed that, from a customer's point of view, the data need to be accessed with in no time the user given the request ,Even though the data is stored on cloud severs the effective query optimizations may not be defined to access the data in an efficient way. This paper proposes the efficient available Query optimization techniques for efficient retrieval of data to satisfy the customer needs.

Keywords:Cloud computing, storage, Cloud service provider, Query Optimization.
1361-1364  
03.3005/02513611364
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33

A Sustainability Approach for Planning and Design of Water Supply Scheme

 Comingstarful Marthong

Abstract

The most viable alternatives out of the various projects considered was evaluated using decision matrix methods based on a sustainability approach. The various possible alternatives projects based on water sources in Naharlagun area in Arunachal Pradesh were considered in the present study. After the preliminary survey, three alternatives projects based on the water sources available in the study area were identified. They were A1-Pachin river, A2-Dikrong river and A3-Niroch nallah. These alternatives are then evaluated for sustainability considering different factors. Technical soundness was observed as the most important decision factor in the Paired Comparison Technique. The project based on the Pachin river was found to be the most viable alternatives from the Alternatives Choice Coefficient (ACC) analysis.

Keywords: Sustainability, Alternatives, Comparison technique, Matrix, Source, Coefficient, Decision.
1365-1370  
03.3005/02513651370
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34

Statistical Multipath Signal Detection in CDMA for Ad hoc Network

 H. Umadevi, K.S. Gurumurthy, Chandrakanth Gowda

Abstract

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, ''ad-hoc'' network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no pre-existing communication infrastructure, e.g., disaster recovery environments. Ad hoc networking concept is not a new one, having been around in various forms for over 20years.Ad Hoc networks are multi-hop wireless networks where nodes may be mobile. These types of networks are used in situations where temporary network connectivity is needed. Ad hoc networks are formed on a dynamic basis, i.e. a number of users may wish to exchange information and services between each other on an ad hoc basis, in order to do this they will need to form an Ad Hoc network. Multipath signal detection is done using BPSK for CDMA Extended for OFDM and calculated the BER and that signal is analyzed in Ad hoc Network.

Keywords:Ad hoc, BER, BPSK, CDMA, MANETs, OFDM, SNR.
1371-1375  
03.3005/02513711375
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35

Automatic Detection of Name Disambiguation and Extracting Aliases for the Personal Name

 G. Tireesha Kumari, Mr. Saroj Kumar Gupta

Abstract

An individual can be referred by multiple name aliases on the web. Extracting aliases of a name is important in information retrieval, sentiment analysis and name disambiguation. We propose a novel approach to find aliases of a given name using automatically extracted lexical pattern based approach. We exploit set of known names and their aliases as training data and extract lexical patterns that convey information related to aliases of names and extract large set of candidate aliases from text snippets returned by web search engine. We define numerous ranking scores to evaluate candidate aliases using three approaches: lexical pattern frequency, word co-occurrences in an anchor text and page counts on the web. We introduce notion of a word co-occurrence graph to represent mutual relations between words that appear in anchor text, words in anchor text are represented as nodes in the co-occurrence graph and edge is formed between nodes which link to the same url. The drawback of the existing method is the extracted alias names may be a original of some other person. So we introduce Email id extraction, by this we can overcome the problem. To construct a robust alias detection system, we integrate ranking scores through support vector machines using a single ranking function. Moreover, the aliases extracted using the proposed method are successfully utilized in information retrieval task to improve recall by 20 percent in a relation detection task.

Keywords:Web mining, information extraction, Relation Extraction.
1376-1383  
03.3005/02513761383
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36

Design of Classifier for Detection of Diabetes using Neural Network and Fuzzy k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

 Mrs. Madhavi Pradhan, Ketki Kohale, Parag Naikade, Ajinkya Pachore, Eknath Palwe

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus is one of the growing vitally fatal diseases world-wide. A design of classifier for the detection of Diabetes Mellitus with optimal cost and precise performance is the need of the age. The current project implementation looks further to train self organizing neural networks and apply fuzzy logic to effectively classify a diabetic patient as such. Neural networks are so chosen due to their dynamic nature of learning and future application of knowledge. Fuzzy logic allows partial membership and rule base that allows direct mapping between human thinking and machine results. The proposed method here uses a neural network implementation of the fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm for designing of classifier. The system is to be run on small mobile devices to facilitate mobility to the user while the processing is to be done on a server machine.

Keywords:classification, diabetes detection, fuzzy knn, hybrid soft computing, k nearest neighbor, neural networks, weka.
1384-1387  
03.3005/02513841387
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37

Electromechanical Dynamics of simply-supported micro-plates

 Dr.J.Srinivas

Abstract

This paper presents electromechanical coupled dynamic model of micro- plate subjected to electrostatic excitation. Equations of motion of laterally deformed thin plate are obtained analytically. The static displacement and dynamic characteristics of microplate are depicted as closed-form solutions and a reduced-order model based on Galerkin's approximate method is used for comparison of the result. A simply supported micro-plate model is considered to illustrate the methodology. The effect of applied voltage, the gap height and plate dimensions on the natural frequencies are illustrated.

Keywords:Electrostatic excitation, Rectangular plate, Simply-supported conditions, Analytical solution, Reduced-order model, Pull-in voltage, Natural frequency, Dynamic response.
1388-1395  
03.3005/02513881395
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38

A Survey of UML-Based approaches to Testing

 Swati Tahiliani, Pallavi Pandit

Abstract

Apart from application modeling, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is also used for designing the tests on various levels (unit, integration, system tests). Designing tests based on UML diagrams will give high quality results, a more robust system. The advantage being that, as same set of UML diagrams are used for modeling production code, same can be used for automated testing. This would enable the developers and testers to test even at the early stages of software development. Different models can be used for defining tests and production code in many ways. In this paper, we will explore different algorithms and techniques applied on use cases and other UML diagrams and cite the work done in the respective areas.

Keywords:Automated Testing, Model Based Testing, test cases, test case generation, techniques for deriving test cases, UML, use cases.
1396-1401  
03.3005/02513961401
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39

Time Truncated Chain Sampling Plans for Generalized Exponential Distribution

 Dr. A. R. Sudamani Ramaswamy, S.Jayasri

Abstract

This paper introduces Chain sampling plan for generalized exponential distribution when the life-test is truncated at a prespecified time are provided in this manuscript. It is assumed that the shape parameter of the generalized exponential distribution is known. The design parameters such as the minimum sample size and the acceptance number are obtained by satisfying the producer's and consumer's risks at the specified quality levels in terms of medians, under the assumption that the termination time and the number of items are pre-fixed.

Keywords:Truncated life test, Generalised exponential distribution, consumer's risk, Operating characteristics, Producer's risk, truncated life test.
1402-1407  
03.3005/02514021407
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40

WI-FI Security by using Proxy server

 Promila, Dr.R.S.Chhillar

Abstract

With the whole world going mobile, data security remains the biggest challenge. Critical data (Business and Safety related) is lying on storage medium on a computer which is connected to hundreds of thousands of computers via internet. Wi-Fi uses a radio frequency to transmit data. Any user with a transceiver can connect to the network, if not properly secured. Use of the mobile networking is on rise and 60% of these are unsecured, risk of external threat is very high. A structured thread by an experienced hacker with malicious intent can get hold of user account and use it to access mission critical data. Thus it is of utmost importance to secure a Wi-Fi network. Stringent security policies must be followed. Multiple lever of security shall be put in place.

Keywords:AES, DAIR, MAC, Proxy server, TKIP, WEP, WPA.
1408-1412  
03.3005/02514081412
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41

Acceptance Sampling Plan for Truncated Life Tests at Maximum Allowable Percent Defective

 Dr. A. R. Sudamani Ramaswamy, Priyah Anburajan

Abstract

The paper deals with a reliability acceptance sampling plan developed through maximum allowable percent defective (MAPD) having the single sampling plan as attribute plan. By fixing MAPD, we here obtain the test termination ratios, assuming that the lifetime follows different distributions. Comparisons are made and examples are given to illustrate the procedure.

Keywords:Acceptance sampling, Life test, Burr XII distribution, Weibull distribution, Log – Logistic distribution, Rayleigh distribution, MAPD.
1413-1418  
03.3005/02514131418
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42

Investigation on Channel Estimation techniques for MIMO- OFDM System for QAM/QPSK Modulation

 Rajbir Kaur, Charanjit Kaur

Abstract

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems has provide high transmission data rate without increasing transmitting power for wireless communication systems. The performance can be further improved by properly estimating the channel at the receiver side. In this paper, investigation on various channel estimation techniques for MIMO-OFDM has been done and a new approach based on time-domain interpolation (TDI) has been presented. TDI is obtained by transforming output of estimator to time domain through Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), zero padding and going back to frequency domain through Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The comparison has been carried out between power of true channel and estimated power for the given channel using LS, LS-Spline and MMSE for QPSK/QAM modulation at SNR 30dB. It is investigated that by applying the DFT over the estimated power of channel for QPSK, the performance of the channel estimators becomes better.

Keywords:Channel estimation, Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), Least square error (LS), Minimum mean square error (MMSE), MIMO-OFDM, QAM, QPSK.
1419-1424  
03.3005/02514191424
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43

Efficient Machine Learning Approach for identifying Disease-Treatment Semantic Relations from Bio-Medical Sentences

 Mr.P.Bhaskar, Mr. Dr.E.Madhusudhana Reddy

Abstract

The Machine Learning (ML) field has gained its momentum in almost any domain of research and just recently has become a reliable tool in the medical domain. The empirical domain of automatic learning is used in tasks such as medical decision support, medical imaging, protein-protein interaction, extraction of medical knowledge, and for overall patient management care. ML is envisioned as a tool by which computer-based systems can be integrated in the healthcare field in order to get a better, more efficient medical care. This paper describes a ML-based methodology for building an application that is capable of identifying and disseminating healthcare information. It extracts sentences from published medical papers that mention diseases and treatments, and identifies semantic relations that exist between diseases and treatments.. In addition to more methodological settings in which we try to find the potential value of other types of representations, we would like to focus on source data that comes from the web. Identifying and classifying medical-related information on the web is a challenge that can bring valuable information to the research community and also to the end user. We also consider as potential future work ways in which the framework's capabilities can be used in a commercial recommender system and in integration in a new EHR system.

Keywords:Healthcare, machine learning, natural language processing.
1425-1429  
03.3005/02514251429
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44

Differences between HTML and HTML 5

 T.N.Sharma, Priyanka Bhardwaj, Manish Bhardwaj

Abstract

Web technology is a standard that allow developing web applications with the help of predefined sets of classes, objects, methods and properties available in a markup language, style sheet language, or programming language. It also provides an interface that allows the sharing of information between a Web server and its clients. HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for web pages. HTML elements are the basic building-blocks of webpages. HTML standard were and are created by World Wide Web consortium (W3C). HTML5 is markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web, and is a core technology of the Internet originally proposed by Opera Software .It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard. There are lots of differences which are given in HTML 5. This paper presents some of the main differences with the help of a few examples.

Keywords:HTML, HTML5, WWW, Web Pages, Web Application.
1430-1437  
03.3005/02514301437
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45

Maximum permissible loading and Static voltage stability limit of a power system using V-I polynomial

 Prof. D.K.Rai

Abstract

P-V or Q-V curve are commonly used to determine the maximum permissible load or static voltage stability limit of a power system. Voltage versus current relation approximation is presented as a tool to assessThe voltage stability limit.determination of the maximum permissible loading of a power system is essential for operating the system with an adequate security margin. A very simple and straightforward method of determining the maximum permissible loading and voltage stability margin of a power system using information about the current operating point is proposed. The method simply requires some locally measurable quantities, such as bus voltage magnitude, and current data at present operating point. The measured data are carefully processed to estimate the maximum permissible loading and voltage stability margin of a system. The proposed method is tested on IEEE 6-bus and 14-bus system.

Keywords:voltagestability, Voltagestabilitymargin, Bus voltage magnitude and load current.
1438-1442  
03.3005/02514381442
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46

A Survey of Text Mining: Retrieval, Extraction and Indexing Techniques

 R. Sagayam, S.Srinivasan, S. Roshni

Abstract

Text mining is the analysis of data contained in natural language text. Text mining works by transposing words and phrases in unstructured data into numerical values which can then be linked with structured data in a database and analyzed with traditional data mining techniques. Text information retrieval and data mining has thus become increasingly important. In this paper a survey of Text mining have been presented.

Keywords:Information Retrieval, Information Extraction and Indexing Techniques.
1443-1446  
03.3005/02514431446
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47

Analytical Study of Unit Cell and Molecular Structures of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

 Devi Dass, Rakesh Prasher, Rakesh Vaid

Abstract

Recently it has been experimentally confirmed that the chirality of a nanotube controls the speed of its growth, and the armchair nanotube should grow the fastest. Therefore, chirality is an important parameter in designing a carbon nanotube (CNT) and needs to be investigated for the role it plays in the structure of a CNT. In this paper, we have analytically analyzed the unit cell and molecular structures of various single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at different values of chirality combinations. The results suggest that total number of unit cells, carbon atoms and hexagons in each structure of SWCNTs are being changed by changing its chirality. A simple and step by step approach has been followed in describing the analytical expressions of overall unit cell structure, molecular structure, chiral angle and diameter of SWCNTs. The analytical formulations have been verified by simulating different SWCNTs at various chirality values. The simulated results match very well with the mathematical results thus validating, both the simulations as well as analytical expressions.

Keywords:chirality, unit cell structure, molecular structure, chiral angle, armchair SWCNT, zigzag SWCNT, chiral SWCNT.
1447-1457  
03.3005/02514471457
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48

Dispatch of mobile sensors in the presence of Obstacles Using Modified Dijkstra Algorithm

 Shalini Kumari H A, Shivanna K

Abstract

A hybrid wireless sensor network consists of both static sensor and mobile sensor nodes. Static sensors monitor the environment and report events occurring in the sensing field. Mobile sensors are then dispatched to visit these event locations to conduct more advanced analysis. The sensing field may contain obstacles. A big challenge is how to dispatch the mobile sensor to the event location without colliding with any obstacles and mobile sensor should reach the event location in a shortest path. Therefore the objective of the paper is to dispatch the mobile sensor to the event location in a shortest collisionfree path. This paper gives a modified dijkstra's algorithm to dispatch mobile sensor from its position to the event location. Our solution proposes a simple way to dispatch the mobile sensor to the event location in the presence of obstacle with modified dijkstra's algorithm. This paper contributes in defining a more general and easiest dispatch solution in the presence of obstacles.

Keywords:Modified Dijkstra's Algorithm,Collision- Free Path, Mobile Sensor, Hybrid WSN, Global Positioning System, Dispatch, Static WSN.
1458-1461  
03.3005/02514581461
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49

Numerical Analysis of Cavitating Flow over A2d Symmetrical Hydrofoil

 Greshma P Rao, Likith K, Mohammed Naveed Akram, Adarsh Hiriyannaiah

Abstract

This report presents the numerical investigations of cavitating flow over a 2D symmetrical hydrofoil. Turbulent cavitating flow over a hydrofoil is simulated using a transport equation based model with consideration of the influence of non condensable gases. The results presented in this report focuses on Cavitation inception, shape and behaviour of sheet cavity, lift and drag forces with cavitation and the pressure distribution around the foil. Steady and unsteady simulations are carried out at different cavitation numbers ranging from near inception conditions to developed conditions and almost super cavitating conditions. Standard k-ɛ model without any modifications are used for simplicity. Effect of dissolved gas content is also considered.

Keywords:Cavitation, Hydrofoil, Standard k-ɛ model.
1462-1469  
03.3005/02514621469
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50

Energy Efficient Reliable Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

 T. SANTOSH, B.Kiran Kumar, E.SATISH BABU

Abstract

An important issue for mobile ad hoc network is the routing protocol design. Due to frequent changes in the topology of the network this becomes a major technical challenge. Node failures and link breakages in the network may cause loss of the network resources. Our proposed scheme enhances the QoS parameters likenetwork stability, efficient packet delivery ratio and network lifetime which thereby improves the reliability of thenetwork.This routing scheme is based on backbone nodes in the network and is incorporated in the AODV protocol. It combines stable routes, battery power and signal strength of the nodes to achieve the QoS parameters.

Keywords:Ad hoc network, Routing protocols, AODV, power, signal strength, Quality of Service.
1470-1473  
03.3005/02514701473
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51

Analysis of object Oriented Metrics

 Dr.R.V.Krishnaiah, BANDA SHIVA PRASAD

Abstract

Now a days Software development plays vital role in the world. We focus on process improvement has increased the demand for software measures, or metrics with which to manage the process. Measurement is fundamental to any engineering discipline. There is considerable evidence that object-oriented design metrics can be used to make quality management decisions. This leads to substantial cost savings in allocation of resources for testing or estimation of maintenance effort for a project. The need for such metrics is particularly acute when an organization is adopting a new technology for which established practices have yet to be developed. This research addresses these needs through the development and implementation of a suite of metrics for OO design. The metric values have been calculated using a semi automated tool. The resulting values have been analyzed to provide significant insight about the object oriented characteristics of the projects.

Keywords:Object Oriented, Design, Development, Metric, Measure, Coupling, Cohesion, Complexity, Size.
1474-1479  
03.3005/02514741479
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52

Performance Evaluation of QoS Routing in Computer Network

 Rupinder Kaur

Abstract

We discuss and evaluate "Optimized Link State Routing Protocol" OLSR routing measurement performance analysis based on different simulation parameters. We have used NS-2 simulator tools for the performance of OLSR routing protocol simulation, we develop the simulation environment of small network (5, 10,15,25,30 Nodes) and observed the complexity of the mobile ad hoc network. The various performance parameters like average end-to-end delay, packets sent and received, throughput, consumed bandwidth has been analyzed. The paper describes all the simulator parameters taken and then compares the effect of complexity of simulation environment in performance of OLSR routing protocol. Our goal is to carry out a systematic comparative measurement study Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol in consideration of QoS parameters based on different simulation parameters. We have changed the different simulation environment and measured the various parameters such as throughput, end-to-end delay, packet delivery rate etc. Using NS-2 simulator tools for the performance of OLSR routing protocol simulation, we created in small network (5, 10 nodes), medium size network (15, 25, 30 nodes) and measured statistically the complexity of the mobile ad-hoc network.

Keywords:Ad hoc networks, Mobile ad hoc networks, Multipoint Relay, Optimized Link State Routing Protocol, Quality of service, Quality of Service Routing, Routing protocol.
1480-1486  
03.3005/02514801486
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53

Heat and Mass Transfer with Variable Temperature and Exponential Mass Diffusion

 I. J. Uwanta and M. N. Sarki

Abstract

In this paper an analytical study is performed to study heat and mass transfer with variable temperature and exponential mass diffusion, the results were obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration, the dimensionless governing equations are tackled by the Laplace transform method, and computed for parameters namely thermal Grashof number Gr, mass Grashof number Gc, Schmidt number Sc, Prandtl number Pr, time t, and acceleration a . It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of Gr, Gc, a and t, It was also observed that velocity, temperature and concentration decreases with increasing Pr and Sc respectively.

Keywords:exponential, mass transfer, variable temperature, mass diffusion.
1487-1494  
03.3005/02514871494
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54

DDeevveellooppmmeenntt ooff EEffffiicciieenntt DDeeccooddiinngg TTeecchhnniiqquuee ffoorr CCoonnvvoolluuttiioonnaallyy EEnnccooddeedd TTeelleemmeettrryy DDaatta

 Namratha M, Pradeep

Abstract

Telemetry system of spacecraft is meant for radioing information from a spacecraft to the ground. Telemetry is typically a mixture of payload or housekeeping health data. Engineering or health data is composed of a wide range of measurements, from switch positions and subsystem states to voltages, temperatures and pressures. Telemetry may be transmitted in real time, or it may be written to a data storage device until transmission is feasible. As the spacecraft health monitoring is very important to maintain the spacecraft in condition, Telemetry system becomes mission critical system in the spacecraft. Packet Telemetry and Telemetry Channel Coding services provide to the user reliable and transparent delivery of telemetry information. With the error detecting and correcting capability of the channel code chosen, errors which occur as a result of the physical transmission process may be detected and corrected by the receiving entity. The implementation of convolution encoder is simple, this means these encoders are small and consumes less power on-board spacecraft and thus it has a good attribute as a spacecraft hardware. The proposed paper aims at decoding the convolution encoded system. There are various approaches to decode and broadly they are classified as  Sequential decoding  Maximum likelihood decoding based on Viterbi decoding The development of an algorithm, implementation of the same and testing the same with simulated convolution encoded data stream is planned as part of this paper.

Keywords:Branch metrics, Convolution encoder, Forward error correction, Path metrics, Survivor paths, Trellis diagram, Viberti algorithm.
1495-1501  
03.3005/02514951501
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55

Design of Classifier for Detecting Image Tampering Using Gradient Based Image Reconstruction Technique

 Sonal Sharma, Preeti Tuli

Abstract

Image tampering detection is a significant multimedia forensics topic which involves, assessing the authenticity or not of a digital image. Information integrity is fundamental in a trial but it is clear that the advent of digital pictures and relative ease of digital image processing makes today this authenticity uncertain. In this paper this issue is investigated and a framework for digital image forensics is presented, individuating if the tampering has taken place. Based on the assumptions that some processing must be done on the image before it is tampered, and an expected distortion after processing an image, we design a classifier that discriminates between original and tampered images. We propose a novel methodology based on gradient based image reconstruction to classify images as original or tampered. This methodology has its application in a context where the source image is available (e.g. the forensic analyst has to check a suspect dataset which contains both the source and the destination image).

Keywords:Gradient, Poisson equation, Region of interest (ROI), Digital image forensics, Authenticity verification, Image reconstruction from gradients.
1502-1509  
03.3005/02515021509
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56

Control Parameters Optimization of Laser Beam Machining Using Genetic Algorithm

 Ruben Phipon, B.B.Pradhan

Abstract

To improve and optimize the responses of a Laser Beam machining process, the various input machining control parameters are to be set at an optimal value. As such one has to adopt experimental methods, which are cumbersome, time consuming, costly and at times not feasible. During such situations, optimization techniques like Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be used as it provides a cost effective method for solution of such complex problems. Unlike traditional optimization techniques, GA is a robust and performs well in multimodal optimization problems. Considering these advantages of GA, optimization of Nd:Yag Laser beam machining process is done using this technique. In this research work, the desired responses are minimum kerf taper and surface roughness. The process control parameters considered are Oxygen pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency and cutting speed. Experiments are designed and the mathematical models correlating the desired responses and the control parameters are established using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Finally, GA is applied to search the optimal parametric values for the optimal responses. Using Genetic Algorithm, minimum Kerf taper obtained is 0.14695° which is 0.313° less in magnitude than experimentally measured value. Also, minimum surface roughness predicted using GA is 1.2625μm which is 0.3375μm better in value compared to the experimental measured value. The average percentage prediction error of GA is found to be 3.35% for kerf taper and 4.02% for surface roughness. Thus, the results prove GA to be a novel optimization technique which can be used to optimize Laser beam machining processes.

Keywords:Laser Beam Machining (LBM), Response surface methodology (RSM), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Optimization.
1510-1515  
03.3005/02515101515
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57

Waste Source Separation Management for Urban Mining: A Change Strategy to Improve Quality

 Helen Morabi Heravia, Mohammad Reza Sabour

Abstract

The aim of Urban Mines is to provide information, expert advice, support, direction and financial solutions to waste, energy, and climate change problems [1]. There are several effective ways of separating recyclable materials; one possible way is to separate it as mixed waste in suitable plants i.e. curbside, MRF (Material Recycling Facility) or landfill. It identifies, evaluates, analyzes past experiences and their compliance with new methods of solid waste management based on social, economic, technical, environmental and health considerations associated with the management concerns that have a positive and valuable effect in solving problems and optimization of source separation schemes in large cities. The aim of this study is to evaluate past experiences in Tehran, study positive and negative points of view of different methods and provide a model for source separation. On the basis of an experimental work and the merits of a new system, results suggested an "integrated waste source separation system" should be adopted. In preparing a new plan on the resolution of the problem previous experience in Tehran was examined, as well as the other metropolitan cities in Iran and similar projects that have been implemented in other countries.

Keywords:Waste management, Waste source separation, Urban mining.
1516-1520  
03.3005/02515161520
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58

Load Flow Analysis of Distribution System Including Wind Turbine Generating System Models

 P.Srihari, G.Srinivasa Rao

Abstract

The power world is sauntering towards ecofriendly distributed generation (DG), their integration into the distribution network postures challenges to existing load flow techniques. This paper is concerned with developing models of various types of wind turbine generating systems (WTGSs) used as distributed generation (DG) sources and demonstrating their application for steady state analysis. As wind energy is used as a DG power source, its impact on the distribution system needs to be analyzed. This requires a load flow algorithm capable of simulating both radial and weakly mesh systems along with Wind Turbine Generating Systems (WTGSs). The compensation based distribution load flow algorithm is extended including WTGS modeling in the present work. The application of the proposed models for the load flow analysis of radial systems having WTGS has been demonstrated. Based on these studies we evaluate the impact of wind based DG on the voltage profile and losses of radial distribution networks. Simulation studies have been conceded out on radial distribution systems having WTGS as DG sources to illustrate the application of the proposed models.

Keywords:Distributed Generation, Distribution load flow, Wind Turbine Generating Systems, Forward and Backward sweep, Voltage Profile, Losses.
1521-1526  
03.3005/02515211526
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59

Mobile Networking and Ad hoc networking technologies

 Simanta Sarma, Dr. Sarbananda Das

Abstract

In this paper we describe mobile network & mobile ad hoc networking technology. Moreover we discuss generation of mobile network and a lean and efficient routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. We report on its implementation, on performance comparisons and on a formal validation result. Moreover we discuss Formal Protocol Verification and operating over infrared or Bluetooth. This paper evaluates two model checking tools, SPIN and UPPAAL, using the verification of the Ad hoc Routing protocol as a case study. Insights are reported in terms of identifying important modeling considerations and the types of ad hoc protocol properties that can realistically be verified.

Keywords:Cellular Phone network, mobile ad hoc networks, routing protocols, Wireless networks, ad hoc routing, routing protocol Implementation, formal validation, model checking, Infrared or Bluetooth.
1527-1533  
03.3005/02515271533
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60

GSM Based Anti-theft Security System Using AT&T Command

 Visa M. Ibrahim. Asogwa A. Victor. S. Y. Musa

Abstract

Antitheft security system security system using AT&T COMMAND utilizes an embedded system design with GSM to monitor and safeguard a car. It secures the car against theft. Upon activation, it automatically demobilizes the car by disconnecting the ignition key supply from the car battery. This now makes it impossible for anybody so starts the car, let alone moving with it. In an attempt of theft through the car doors or boot, the system sends text message to the car owner and at the same time starts up an alarm. This design popped out due to the increasing rate at which packed cars are stolen especially in our country, but with this design this packed car is being monitored irrespective of where it is packed, provided there is GSM network coverage. From the research conducted, it was found out that majority of the existing car security system uses only alarm, and doesn't send text message to the car owner let alone of demobilizing the car. But with the use of GSM network, the owner is guaranteed that the car will send text message to his phone, and at the same time, have people around alerted of what is happening. Added to this is that the car will not be move because it has been demobilized. The use of AT&T COMMAND made the design use very few electronics component, look very small and compact that it can be hardly seen when mounted in the car [2].

Keywords:Communication, AT&T Command, Microcontroller, GSM, Networks, Text message, Feedback.
1534-1537  
03.3005/02515341537
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61

SURVEY OF FORMAT PRESERVING ENCRYPTION

 S.Vidhya , K.Chitra

Abstract

Cryptography is a technique used to transmit data in a secured way through the internet. Encryption is the process of converting information from its original form (called plaintext) into an encoded, unreadable form (called cipher text). Format preserving encryption (FPE) refers to a set of techniques for encrypting data such that the cipher text has the same format as the plaintext. A format-preserving encryption scheme is applicable for many real-life applications. FPE is a good encryption scheme that allows for encryption with minimal modifications to the original plain text. I examine the FPE model constructed by Black and Rogaway.

Keywords:Analysis of FPE, Data type preserving encryption, Format preserving encryption, FPE, Survey of FPE.
1538-1541  
03.3005/02515381541
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62

Implementation of Register Files in the Processor of Hard Real Time Systems for Context Switching

 Prof. B Abdul Rahim, Mr. S.Narayana Raju, Mr. M M Venkateswara Rao

Abstract

Embedded Real Time applications use multi threading to share of real time application. The advantage of multi-threading include greater throughput, more efficient CPU use, Better system reliability improved performance on multiprocessor computer. Real time systems like Flight control systems require very precise timing; multi threading itself becomes an overhead cost mainly due to context switching of the real-time operating system (RTOS). In this paper we propose a new approach to improve the overall performance of embedded systems by implementing register files into processor register bank itself. So that the system use multithreading by moving the context switching component of the real-time operating system (RTOS) to the processor hardware. This technique leads to savings of processor clock cycles used by context switching, By this approach the hard real time embedded systems performance can be improved.

Keywords:Context Switching, Operating System, Memory, Simulation, Programming, Hard Real Time, Log Terminal.
1542-1545  
03.3005/02515421545
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63

A Benefits Estimation Model for Software Reuse Based Program

 Shobha Rani Malik, Dr. Saba Hilal

Abstract

In software engineering, reuse of artifacts is considered as silver-bullet for project development specially in component based development technic.The benefits of reuse are neither linear nor exact they are estimated with the help of metrics and models. To measure benefits of software reuse is a challenging task since they are multi dimensional mainly earlier time-to-market ,better quality, increased productivity etc. and of two dimensional characteristics- quantitative and qualitative . Reuse is highly potential in correlated domains due to similar requirements.

Keywords:Software Reuse Benefits estimation, Producer and User Benefits, Software Reuse Benefits increasing factors.
1546-1553  
03.3005/02515461553
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64

Growth of Robotics Industry Early in 21st Century

 Manshi Shukla and, Amar Nath Shukla

Abstract

Robotics Industry includes two types of robots: Industrial Robots and Service Robots. The automation and modernization of manufacturing processes depends on the industrial robots. Service robots are enriching innovation or products development in different applications, whether professional or personal. Industrial and service robotics is mature as a technology and is well established. This paper analyzes the growth in the Robotics Industry worldwide in the early age of 21st century both for industrial robots and service robots. The growth of industrial and service robots is explained on the basis of the average increase in the sales during 2000-2011. In this paper the market trends for both types of robots is compared which contributed in the expansion of robotics industry for the same period.

Keywords:Applications of robots, Automation, Industrial Robots, Market analysis, Robotics industry, Service Robots, Types of robots.
1554-1558  
03.3005/02515541558
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65

FPGA Implementation and Functional Verification of a Pipelined MIPS Processor

 Balaji valli, A. Uday Kumar, B.Vijay Bhaskar

Abstract

This project targets the implementation design of a pipelined MIPS RISC Processor using VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language). In this paper MIPS instruction format, instruction data path, decoder modules are analyzed. Furthermore, instruction fetch (IF) module of a CPU is designed based on RISC CPU instruction set. Function of IF module mainly includes fetch instruction and latch module address arithmetic module check validity of instruction module synchronous control module.

Keywords:MIPS, RISC, CPU, VHDL, FPGA, ID, IF, EX, MEM.
1559-1561  
03.3005/02515591561
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66

Extraction of Edge Detection Using Digital Image Processing Techniques

 M. Kalpana, G. Kishorebabu, K.Sujatha

Abstract

Digital image Processing is one of the basic and important tool in the image processing and computer vision. In this paper we discuss about the extraction of a digital image edge using different digital image processing techniques. Edge detection is the most common technique for detecting discontinuities in intensity values. The input image or actual image have some noise that may cause the of quality of the digital image. Firstly, wavelet transform is used to remove noises from the image collected. Secondly, some edge detection operators such as Differential edge detection, Log edge detection, canny edge detection and Binary morphology are analyzed. And then according to the simulation results, the advantages and disadvantages of these edge detection operators are compared. It is shown that the Binary morphology operator can obtain better edge feature. Finally, in order to gain clear and integral image profile, the method of ordering closed is given. After experimentation, edge detection method proposed in this paper is feasible.

Keywords:Image, Digital image, Edge, boundary, Edge detection, wavelet denoising, differential operators, and binary morphology.
1562-1566  
03.3005/02515621566
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67

Estimation and Mapping of Land Surface Temperature From AATSR Images And GIS: A Case Study In Kolondieba-Tiendaga Basin In Sudano-Sahelian Climate, Mali

 Daou I, Mariko A, Rasmus F, Menenti M, Kourosh K, Maïga H B, Maïga S.M

Abstract

The knowledge of the various terms which intervene in the energy balance of surface is essential at the same time for the hydrologists, the amenagists, the agronomists, the meteorologists, and the climatologists. The land surface temperature of the making ground left the key parameters of this assessment, plays a fundamental part in the processes of interaction hydrosphere-biosphere, atmosphere. It represents, the temperature of canopy of the vegetation for the covered zones of vegetation, and the temperature of canopy of the vegetation plus that of the surface of the ground, for the zones of scattered vegetation. While it represents the temperature of surface of the ground for the zones bar soil. This land surface temperature can be collected through two approaches: conventional approaches, and them approaches of remote sensingThe conventional methods make it possible to collect the temperature of surface of the ground starting from measurements of weather stations. On the other hand, the approaches of remote sensing make it possible, as for them, to estimate the land surface through the use of model of energy balance of surface. In this study, model SEBS was used on satellite data AATSR to estimate and mapping the land surface temperature, on the catchment area of Kolondièba-Tiendaga, in southern Mali zone. These results show values of land surface temperature between 303 and 296 (°K) for standard deviations of 2, 66 and 0, 945. These results are similar to those already found elsewhere, in West Africa with the same types given of satellite images AASTR.

Keywords:Land surface Temperature, model SEBS, Mapping, watershed of Kolondieba-Tiendaga, Mali.
1567-1576  
03.3005/02515671576
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68

Routing and security for remote labs for teaching and research (SRS-E-LABO)

 Alassane Diop

Abstract

In this paper, routing services and security are software components that can be integrated in an e-laboratory or remote laboratory as well as in mobile laboratories. We will show how to implement services to manage the routing and security using virtual routers. The virtual routers that we propose allow designers to online laboratories to adapt or supplement their learning environments or dedicated platforms using their services to route and secure access to physical devices and the information passed to the various network nodes to remote laboratories. The concept to be presented, based on WCF (Windows Communication Foundation), provides centralized network management at a single location while the remote labs are based on networks and distributed systems.

Keywords:Remote labs, online laboratory, computer network, WAP, virtual router, security, e-laboratory, e-learning, WCF.
1577-1582  
03.3005/02515771582
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69

Performance Evaluation of Aodv and Dsr Routing Protocols for Vbr Traffic for 150 Nodes in Manets

Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh, Anantdeep Kaur

Abstract

Mobile Ad hoc network (MANETs) are rapidly growing as an important area of wireless communication with the revolutionary inventions in the mobile devices. Efficient routing protocols make MANETs reliable. Despite the considerable simulation works, still more investigation is required in the performance evaluation of routing protocols for multimedia traffic especially Variable Bit Rate(VBR).In this paper, we will conduct a number of simulations for the performance evaluation of two popular routing protocols of MANET, namely AODV and DSR, for VBR multimedia traffic using Real Time Protocol(RTP).We will investigate the performance using four metrics-packet received, throughput, routing overhead and network load.

Keywords:MANETs; AODV; DSR; VBR; RTP.
1583-1587  
03.3005/02515831587
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70

Total Prime Graph

 

Abstract

We introduce a new type of labeling known as "Total Prime Labeling". Graphs which admit a Total Prime labeling are called "Total Prime Graph". Properties of this labeling are studied and we have proved that Paths n P , Star 1,n K , Bistar, Comb, Cycles n C where n is even, Helm n H , 2, , n K   3 t C and Fan graph are Total Prime Graph. We also prove that any cycle n C where n is odd is not a Total Prime Graph.

Keywords:Prime Labeling, Vertex prime labeling, Total Prime Labeling, Total Prime Graph
1588-1593  
03.3005/02515881593
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71

A Study on Prosody Analys

 Padmalaya Pattnaik, Shreela Dash

Abstract

Speech can be described as an act of producing voice through the use of the vocal folds and vocal apparatus to create a linguistic act designed to convey information. Linguists classify the speech sounds used in a language into a number of abstract categories called phonemes. Phonemes are abstract categories, which allow us to group together subsets of speech sounds. Speech signals carry different features, which need detailed study across gender for making a standard database of different linguistic, & paralinguistic factors. Prosodic phenomena are specific to spoken language. They concern the way in which speech sounds are acoustically realized: how long they are, how high and how loud. Such acoustic modulations are used by human speakers to express a variety of linguistic or paralinguistic features, from stress and syntactic boundaries, to focus and emphasis or pragmatical and emotional attitudes. Linguistics and speech technology have approached prosody from a variety of points of view, so that a precise definition of the scope of prosodic research is not easy. A main distinction can be drawn between acoustic-phonetic analyses of prosody and more abstract, linguistic, phonological approaches When people interact with others they convey emotions. Emotions play a vital role in any kind of decision in affective, social or business area. The emotions are manifested in verbal, facial expressions but also in written texts. The objective of this study is to verify the impact of various emotional states on speech prosody analysis.

Keywords:Duration, Emotion, Jitter, Prosody, Shimmer
1594-1599  
03.3005/02515941599
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72

Generalized PWM algorithm for Direct Torque Controlled Induction Motor Drives using the only Sampled Voltages

 J.Bhavani, J.Amarnath, D.Subbarayudu

Abstract

This paper presents a simple generalized pulse width modulation (GPWM) algorithm for direct torque controlled induction motor drives. Though the classical direct torque control (DTC) algorithm gives fast dynamic response, it gives large steady state ripples and variable switching frequency operation of the inverter. To overcome these problems, space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithm is used for DTC drives. But, as the SVPWM algorithm requires angle and sector information the complexity involved is more. Also, it gives more switching losses of the inverter. To reduce the complexity involved the proposed algorithm uses the instantaneous phase voltages only. Moreover, the proposed approach gives the realization of various carrier based PWM algorithms that include both SVPWM and various discontinuous PWM (DPWM) algorithms by using a generalized control algorithm and is obtained via unequal sharing of zero states. In the proposed approach, by varying a constant k  value from zero to one, various DPWM algorithms can be generated along with the SVPWM algorithm. To validate the proposed GPWM algorithm based DTC drive, several numerical simulation studies have been carried out and the results have been presented. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords:DPWM, DTC, GPWM, Induction motor drive, SVPWM.
1600-1605  
03.3005/02516001605
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73

Reducing Powersystem Oscillations Using Facts Controller(Tcsc)

 N Mohan, M.Ramesh

Abstract

The recently proposed phase imbalanced series capacitive compensation concept has been shown to be effective in enhancing power system dynamics as it has the potential of damping power swing as well as sub synchronous resonance oscillations. In this paper, the effectiveness of a "hybrid" series capacitive compensation scheme in damping power system oscillations is evaluated. A hybrid scheme is a series capacitive compensation scheme, where two phases are compensated by fixed series capacitor (C) and the third phase is compensated by a TCSC in series with a fixed capacitor (Cc). The effectiveness of the scheme in damping power system oscillations for various network conditions, namely different system faults and tieline power flows is evaluated using the EMTP-RV time simulation program.

Keywords:FACTS Controllers, phase imbalance, series compensation, thyristor controlled series capacitor.
1606-1611  
XXXXXXXXXXX
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74

Black Hole Attack and its Counter Measures in AODV Routing Protocol

 Varsha Patidar, Rakesh Verma

Abstract

Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile node. In this network, a wireless node usually moves randomly and dynamically forms a temporary network without a network infrastructure. Due to absence of infrastructure, MANET is used in various application like medical, battle field, business application and remote areas. MANET is vulnerable to attacks such as Black Hole Attack, Grey Hole Attack, and Worm Hole Attack. Wireless Ad- Hoc network may be unprotected against attacks by malicious nodes due to security vulnerabilities. Many mechanisms have been proposed to overcome the Black Hole Attack. A malicious node send Route Response (RREP) incorrectly of having route to destination with minimum hop count and when sender sends the data packet to this malicious node, it drops all the packet in the network. If there are multiple malicious nodes in the network, and are cooperating with each other for performing the attack than such attack is called Cooperative Black Hole Attack.

Keywords:Black Hole Attack, Grey Hole Attack, malicious node, MANET, RREP, Worm Hole Attack.
1612-1614  
03.3005/02516121614
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75

A Modified SVD-DCT Method for Enhancement of Low Contrast Satellite Images

 G.Praveena, M.Venkatasrinu

Abstract

During the last decade, several techniques are proposed for contrast enhancement of a low-contrast satellite images. In this a new technique has been proposed based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The proposed technique modified SVD-DCT converts the image into the SVD-DCT domain after normalizing the singular value matrix. Then the modified image is reconstructed by using inverse DCT. In the enhancement procedure Adaptive Histogram Equalization (AHE) has been used.. The perceptual and quantitative results of the proposed modified SVD-DCT method clearly indicates increased efficiency and flexibility over the exiting methods such as Linear Contrast Stretching technique, GHE technique, DWT-SVD technique, DWT technique, De-correlation Stretching technique, Gamma Correction method based techniques.

Keywords:Adaptive Histogram Equalization (AHE), Contrast enhancement, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD).
1615-1619  
03.3005/02516151619
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76

Video Steganography by LSB Substitution Using Different Polynomial Equations

 A. Swathi, Dr. S.A.K Jilani, Ph.D

Abstract

Video Steganography is a technique to hide any kind of files into a carrying Video file. The use of the video based Steganography can be more eligible than other multimedia files, because of its size and memory requirements. The least significant bit (LSB) insertion is an important approach for embedding information in a carrier file. Least significant bit (LSB) insertion technique operates on LSB bit of the media file to hide the information bit. In this project, a data hiding scheme will be developed to hide the information in specific frames of the video and in specific location of the frame by LSB substitution using polynomial equation.

Keywords:least significant bit, Steganography.
1620-1623  
03.3005/02516201623
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77

High Speed Efficient Data Transmission in MPLS Ring Network

 Amit, Mr. Shamsher Singh

Abstract

MPLS Transport Profile is gaining importance as it becomes a dominant solution for a converged transport network.In a high speed network, any disturbance over the network cause heavy data loss. When data is transferring a topology like bus or ring. The chance of data loss increases more in same ratio. In this present the discussion is being performed on high speed MPLS Ring network. As some fault occurs over the network it will return heavy data loss. In this work we are defining some new low cost hardware called save points. Save points are placed at equal distance between two nodes. The network will maintain two paths for reliable data transmission. One path is the actual data path and other is backup path. As the signal disruption detected, it will inform the nearest save point and the save point will direct the communication to the backup path. The present article describes the implementation in detail.

Keywords:MPLS, Save Point, Broken Link, Recovery.
1624-1627  
03.3005/02516241627
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78

Application of Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization to maximize Coverage and Lifetime of wireless Sensor Network

 Deepak Kumar Chaudhary, Professor Rajeshwar Lal Dua

Abstract

The autonomous nodes used for monitoring environments are known as Wireless Sensor Networks. The major use of Multi-Objective particle swarm optimization for maximizing coverage & life time using wireless sensor networks is described. Wireless sensor networks are being tremendous popular due to increasing number of applications for these networks. This paper introduces a proposal to extend heuristic called "Particle Swarm Optimization "(PSO) to deal with Multi-objective optimization problems. This paper describes a new approach for energy efficient layout of wireless sensor network in which sensors communicate with each other to transmit their data to a high energy communication node which acts as an interface between data processing unit and sensors. Optimization of sensor locations is essential to provide communication for a longer duration. It discusses an energy efficient layout with good coverage based on Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm.

Keywords:Heuristic, Multi-objective Optimization (MOO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).
1628-1633  
03.3005/02516281633
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79

Power Management in At- Speed Scan Based Testing Applied to SOC

 M.P. Bhagya Lakshmi,

Abstract

The focal goal of this paper is to shrink power consumption for the duration of at speed scan based testing. In scan-based tests, power consumptions in both shift and capture phase may be drastically privileged than that in regular approach, which threaten circuits' trustworthiness through manufacturing test. High power consumed during shift and capture phases upshot in structural smash up to silicon or flawed data transmit during manufacturing test. Prior X filling techniques diminish either shift power or capture power however not together. Work of fiction Proposed X filling technique that can dwindle both shift- and capture-power for the period of speed scan based testing. Further still more reduce power consumption by adding dynamic voltage scaling method with X-filling method.

Keywords:At-Speed Scan-Based Testing, Low-Power Testing, Dynamic voltage scaling, X-Filling Technique.
1634-1639  
03.3005/02516341639
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80

Determination of Ultimate Lateral Loads in Deep Foundation in Multiple Layers of Cohessionless Soils

 B.S.Chawhan, S.S.Quadri, P.G.Rakaraddi,

Abstract

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the lateral load carrying capacity of model piles of different flexural stiffness embedded in loose sand between dense sand and dense sand between loose sand layered soil strata. Attempts has been made to study the variation of lateral stiffness, eccentricity and soil layer thickness ratio and the effect of various parameters on the magnitude of Nh. The result of a model tested for the piles embedded in Tungabhadra river sand at Harihar taluk, Davangere dist, Karnataka State under monotonic lateral loadings. Experimental results are used for the load-deflection curves (p-y curves) for laterally loaded piles. The proposed p-y curves were compared to the existing curves with Nh and were evaluated with the experimental data. The ultimate lateral soil resistance and subgrade modulus were investigated and discussed.

Keywords:Subgrade modulus, flexural stiffness, ground line deflection, model tests, piles, soil-pile interaction.
1640-1644  
03.3005/02516401644
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81

Study of Transient Temperature Distribution in a Friction Welding Process and its effects on its Joints

 Sirajuddin Elyas Khany, K.N.Krishnan, Mohd Abdul Wahed

Abstract

In Materials like Stainless Steel 304 and Eutectoid Steel, microstructure is affected during the process of friction welding leading to variation in Hardness and strength. In the present Study, the transient temperature distribution in a friction welded Joint of similar materials in one dimension (uniaxial direction) is studied. A numerical method based on thermal networking is used to estimate the transient temperature distribution. Microstructure variation of specimen is also studied. The preliminary predictions are compared to actual experimental data from welding conducted under identical conditions. The results are shown to be in fair agreement. The numerical method proposed in this work provides guidance in weld parameter development and allows better understanding of the friction welding process.

Keywords:Friction Welding, Numerical Method, Temperature Distribution, Microstructure and Hardness.
1645-1655  
03.3005/02516451655
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82

E-Governance web services for web seniors

 Prof. K.KailasaRao, Sravanthi

Abstract

Now a day's service of any sector can be online this has tremendous in banking sectors, gradually the services of government now become online in every department and provide optimized results . Web services are added to every application to access data across the web. This has been largely the Result of the many incremental efforts to describe, advertise, discover, and invoke web services. These egovernment services gradually covers almost several application domains, including social programs, Healthcare, voting, tax filing, etc. The primary objective of web services is to provide the interoperability among different software and data applications running on a variety of platforms . In this paper we mainly focuses on web services provided by government departmental applications especially for senior citizens called web senior.

Keywords:e-government, e-commerce, virtual organization, digital administration, administrative interface, e-governance.
1656-1659  
03.3005/02516561659
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83

A Novel Design of Fractal Antenna with EBG-GP

 Yogesh, Aijaz Ahmed, Sagar Erande

Abstract

A new microstrip antenna is developed with a fractal patch and an electromagnetic bandgap ground plane (EBG-GP). This antenna was designed using Ansoft HFSS. A prototype was built and measured. The measured resonant frequency for this antenna is lower than that for a typical rectangular patch antenna with inset-fed, resulting in a size reduction of about 33.9 % at 2.45 GHz.

Keywords:Fractal Antenna, Electromagnetic bandgap, microstrip antenna, rectangular, patch, wireless, EBG-GP.
1660-1661  
03.3005/02516601661
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84

GSM Modem Based Data Acquisition System

 Vandana Pandya, Deepali Shukla

Abstract

GSM Modem Based Data Acquisition is a process control system .it help in collecting data from various processes present at distant places. It helps us to monitor parameters like temperature ,rainfall ,humidity etc. the Service personnel need not to visit distant sites for data collection .the data is collected automatically formed a data base and stored in a PC. It can be used in industries as well as in home automation.

Keywords:GSM Modem ,SIM card, Arduino Board, Serial cable, PC.
1662-1667  
03.3005/02516621667
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85

Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow past A Vertical Cone with Uniform Heat And Mass Flux

 S. Gouse Mohiddin, O. Anwar Bég and S. Vijaya Kumar Varma

Abstract

A numerical solution of unsteady laminar free convection in a viscoelastic fluid flow past a vertical cone with transverse magnetic field applied normal to the surface with uniform heat and mass flux is presented. The Walters-B shortmemory liquid model is employed to simulate medical creams and other rheological liquids encountered in biotechnology and chemical engineering. This rheological model introduces supplementary terms into the momentum conservation equation. The dimensionless unsteady, coupled and non-linear partial differential conservation equations for the boundary layer regime are solved by an unconditionally stable implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson type. The velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been studied for the effect of viscoelasticity parameter, Prandtl number, magnetic parameter, Schmidt number, and buoyancy ratio parameter and semi vertical angle. The local skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also presented and analyzed graphically. The numerical results are validated by comparisons with previously published work and are found to be in excellent agreement.

Keywords:cone; finite difference method; flux; Walters-B short-memory model; AMS Subject Classification : 35Q35, 76R10, 76W05. 80A20.
1668-1676  
03.3005/02516681676
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86

A Value of E-Service In Local Government: A Fuzzy Approach Evaluation

 Zuleaizal Sidek, Noor Hasimah Ibrahim Teo

Abstract

Usability and utility is a necessary condition for survival on the web. It determines the effectiveness of particular website in delivering its expected use. This paper reports the results of an evaluative study of the Malaysian e-Government portal (MyEG) from the usability and utility perspectives, using a common set of performance metrics from user participation. To deal with the uncertainty and vague expressions that surround the answers options, fuzzy approach will be applied. The result is categories based on demographic study and five main criterion of usability evaluation [9]. The results shows that MyEG have an average level of usability. Therefore, enhancements need to be done on the interface of the MyEG which at the same time would increase utility as well.

Keywords:e-service, e-Government, usability, utility, fuzzy logic, rule based approach, Evaluation.
1677-1681  
03.3005/02516771681
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87

Vanet Based Traffic Management System Development And Testing Using Aodv Routing Protocol.

 PATIL V.P

Abstract

Vehicular Ad-Hoc network (VANET) is a type of Mobile Ad-Hoc (MANET) network where the nodes are constrained to move along the road. Vehicles in VANET are equipped with a radio device to communicate with each other and also with the road side units (base stations). Vehicular networks aims to make the driving experience safer, efficient and enjoyable. Vehicle traffic congestion is reflected as delays while traveling. Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects and is a major problem in today's society. Several techniques have been deployed to deal with this problem. In this paper, it has been proposed an innovative approach to deal with the problem of traffic congestion using the characteristics of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET). The system is developed and tested using AODV protocol of ad hoc mobile network to deal with the problem of vehicle traffic congestion in vehicular networks. The performance is measured in terms of no. of packets broadcasted, percentage of packets delivered, and percentage of traffic diverted and overhead to manage the problem of data traffic congestion in computer networks. Using simulations the applicability of the algorithm in the domain of vehicle traffic congestion in a VANET is demonstrated.

Keywords:VANET, Aodv, Traffic management, Java, Testing, proactive protocol, traffic congestion.
1682-1689  
03.3005/02516821689
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88

Dynamic Modelling Of Single-Phase Permanent Capacitor Induction Motor and Study of Non-Linear Phenomenon

 Mr. Animesh Karmakar, Mr. Nihar Ranjan Roy, Mr. Rajarshi Mukherjee, Dr. (Prof) Pradip Kumar Saha, Dr. (Prof) Gautam Kumar Panda

Abstract

This paper presents a non-linear dynamic model of a permanent capacitor single-phase induction motor. The D–Q axis model of the permanent capacitor induction motor, based on the state vector analysis of the system is conducted; revealing the periodic and chaotic phenomenon under different system parameters. Accordingly, a chaotic-speed fan can be achieved by appropriately varying the motors' internal parameters or the operation condition. Mathematical analysis and computer simulations are attached to testify the proposed non-linear model of the permanent capacitor single-phase induction motor.

Keywords:bifurcation, chaos, non-linear, permanent-capacitor, periodicity, phase-plot, single-phase.
1690-1694  
03.3005/02516901694
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89

An Identity-Based Broadcast Encryption Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

 Sharad Kumar Verma, Dr. D.B. Ojha

Abstract

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. Since the nodes are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. The network is decentralized, where all network activity including discovering the topology and delivering messages must be executed by the nodes themselves, i.e., routing functionality will be incorporated into mobile nodes. Such networks are more vulnerable to security attacks than conventional wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a secure identity-based ad hoc protocol for mobile devices to construct a group key for a setup of a secure communication network in an efficient way and propose a collision-free method for computing such keys. Unlike group key management protocols, we use identity-based keys that do not require certificates which simplify key management. In contrast to other interactive protocols, we only need one broadcast to setup the group key and member removal is also highly efficient.

Keywords:MANET, Network Topology, Identity-based, Key Management.
1695-1698  
03.3005/02516951698
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90

Image Interpolation Algorithm for Edge Detection Using Directional Filters and Data Fusion

 B.HIMABINDU,

Abstract

Preserving edge structures is a challenge to the image interpolation algorithms to reconstruct a high resolution image from a low resolution counterpart. We propose a new guide edge linear interpolation technique via address filter and data fusion. For a pixel to be interpolated, two sets of observation are defined in two orthogonal directions, and each set produces an estimated value of the pixel. These estimates of direction, following the model the different measures of the lack of noisy pixels are fused by linear least mean square estimation error (LMMSE) technique in a more robust estimate, and statistics two sets of observations. It also presents a simplified version of Based LMMSE interpolation algorithm to reduce computational cost without sacrificing much the interpolation performance. Experiments show that the new interpolation techniques can preserve sharp edges and reduce artifacts call.

Keywords:Bicubical convolution interpolation, Data Fusion, Edge preservation, Image interpolation, Laplacian, Linear Mean Square Estimation Error (LMMSE), optimal weight cubic interpolation.
1699-1707  
03.3005/02516991707
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91

Evaluation of Thermal Properties of E-Glass/ Epoxy Composites Filled By Different Filler Materials

 K.Devendra, T. Rangaswamy

Abstract

This paper compares the values of the thermal and fire resistance properties of composites made using the hand layup technique. E-Glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites was fabricated by filling varying concentration of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), magnesium hydroxide(Mg(OH)2), silicon carbide (SiC), and hematite powder. The main aim of this work was to determine the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, time to ignition and flame propagation rate of composites. Experimental results show that Al2O3 and Mg (OH)2 filled composites exhibited low thermal conductivities. Composites filled by SiC particles exhibited low thermal expansion coefficient when compared with other filled composites. Fire test results indicated that increase the loading of Al2O3, Mg (OH)2, and hematite powder increase the time to ignition and reduces the flame propagation rate of composites.

Keywords:Composites, Fillers, Fire resistance, Properties, Thermal.
1708-1714  
03.3005/02517081714
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