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Frequency: 12 issues per year
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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 2, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2012

S.No. Article Title Page No. PDF  
1.

Single Slot Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Applications


P.A. Ambresh, P. M. Hadalgi and P.V.Hunagund

Abstract

This article presents the design of rectangular microstrip antenna. The prototype antenna is designed and fabricated on FR4 substrate of dielectric constant Єr = 4.4 and thickness h = 1.66 mm. The proposed antenna is excited using co-axial probe feed. The experimental result of rectangular-shaped microstrip antenna exhibits the excellent radiation characteristic corresponding to impedance bandwidth of 320 MHz from 3.23 to 3.69 GHz, exceeding Federal Communication Commission (FCC) frequency range with a return-loss performance S11= -10 dB. The experimental radiation patterns of this antenna are omni-directional. This proposed antenna can be useful for WiMax, WLAN, UK fixed satellite services, UWB system, microwave imaging and vehicular radar.

Keywords: microstrip antenna, FR4, radiation, Omni-directional, spacer.
214-216  
03.3005/022214216
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2.

AN ORDEAL RANDOMIZED SECURE DATA ENCRYPTION SCHEME (ORSDES)


Ramveer Singh, Deo Brat Ojha

Abstract

In this paper, we present a new Data encryption scheme named as Ordeal Randomized Secure Data Encryption Scheme (ORSDES). The theoretical security measures are also discussed and ORSDES advocates its competency. Through this paper, we encourage and motivate the user to use DES as ORSDES with more efficiency and security. Mainly we emphasis on secrecy of key because all knows, In cryptography key always have important role. Using a variable pseudo random number and operational function, the new generated key for each block of message make ORSDES more attractive and usable. ORSDES motivates itself the user to use it with new destiny of confidence, integrity and authentication.

Keywords: Cryptography, Data Encryption Standard, Pseudo Random Number Generator, Secret key.
217-222  
03.3005/022217222
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3.

Development of Virtual Experiment on Amplitude Modulation

Bhaskar Y. Kathane, Pradeep B. Dahikar

Abstract

The scope of this paper includes development and implementation of virtual lab for amplitude Modulation. The study of amplitude modulation is important in data communications and network. The amplitude modulation experiment can be performed by using the concept of virtual Intelligent SoftLab (VIS). The virtual experiment described here will help students to perform it any time anywhere. The screen shows virtual carrier, modulating and modulated waves and the necessary circuit for studying Amplitude modulation. There is a facility for change of amplitude and frequency of modulating signal. The effect of mixing of carrier and modulating signal is also visible on the screen.

Keywords: - Modulation, SoftLab, Virtual, VIS Model
223-227  
03.3005/022223227
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4.

NON LINEAR MODEL CITY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AND CONTROL OF FUEL CONSUMPTION

Ir. Mudjiastuti Handajani

Abstract

The national economy development affects the vehicle ownership which ultimately increases fuel consumption. The rise of the vehicle ownership is dominated by the increasing number of motorcycles. This research aims to analyze and identify the characteristics of fuel consumption, the city transportation system, and to analyze the relationship and the effect of the city transportation system on the fuel consumption. A multivariable analysis is used in this study. The data analysis techniques include: a Corelational Analysis, a Multivariate Regression Analysis by using the R software. More than 70% of fuel is consumed in metropolitan cities, 14.2% in large cities and 15.67% in moderate cities. The city transportation system variables that strongly affect the fuel consumption are population, public vehicles, and private vehicles. The effect of the net population density is not too big. The higher the population density is, the larger the fuel consumption will be. This not same the Kenworthy theory (1999) that the higher the population density is, the lower the fuel/per capita consumption will be. The model for the effect of the city transportation system on the fuel consumption = 0.1441*MPU0.1590 * MPP0.2148 * JP0.7659. This method can be developed to control the fuel consumption by improving qualified and reliable public transportation services, efficient routes, improving the city potentials, reducing the number of private vehicles and land use arrangement, transforming transportation to information technology.

Key words: consumption, fuel, city typology, transportation system, relationship.
228-235  
03.3005/022228235
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5.

FINGERPRINT BASED IGNITION SYSTEM

Karthikeyan.a, Sowndharya j.

Abstract

Human identification is field very significant and which has undergone rapid changes with time. An important and very reliable human identification method is fingerprint identification. Fingerprint of every person is unique. So this helps in identifying a person or in improving security of a system. Finger print of a person is "read‟ by a special type of sensor. Finger print sensor can be interfaced with a microcontroller. Through keypad we can add new user and delete the existing user, also identify the user by selecting corresponding option through keypad. In this paper we use a fingerprint module to read once identity to start the equipment. For this we use a microcontroller to enable the ignition system if the matching between scanned data and the already existing data is correct. Comparison is done inside the fingerprint module itself and its output is given to microcontroller. Result is displayed in a LCD display whether the user is authorised or not. The sensor used is FIM 3030 by NITGEN. Microcontroller used is AT89c52. AT89c52 is a low power, high power CMOS 8 bit microcontroller. It consists of 32 I/O lines. The other main components are the decoder and the latch. The decoder used is DM74LS138 where as the latch used is 74HC373.

Keywords: Sensor, relay, FIM, latch, decoder, LCD.
236-243  
03.3005/022236243
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6.

An Appraisal of Mobile Technology

EktaAgrawal, Anupam Yadav, Pragati Gupta

Abstract

From ancient to modern times, mankind has been looking for means of long distance communications. For centuries, letter proved to be the most reliable means to transmit information. Fire, flags, horns etc. were used to transmit information faster. Technical improvement in 19th century simplified long distance communications with use if telegraphy and telephony. Both techniques were used for wired communication. In 1873, J.C. Maxwell laid the foundation of electromagnetic theory by summarizing empirical results in four equations, which are still valid today.[1] It however took several decades before Marconi made economic use of this theory by developing devices for wireless transmission of Morse signal took place. Voice was transmitted for the first time in 1906 and one of the first radio broadcast transmission was done in 1909 in New York.


Keywords: Mobile generations, 1G, 2G, 3G, Advantages, Limitations
244-247  
03.3005/022244247
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7.

A User Friendly Guide for Spleen Ultrasound Image Enhancement

Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood, Wan Fairuz Jamilah Wan Mohd Ridzwan, Norshazwana Mat Taib and Ismail Ariffin

Abstract

Spleen ultrasound screening was rarely used because usually people will scan their body thoroughly using CT scan or x-ray to observe any abnormalities. However, it is a fact that ultrasound machine is far safer than any other imaging modalities, and it can be used to scan any parts of the body except for hard tissue such as bone. In this paper, we proposed an approach to obtain spleen ultrasound image and perform image quality enhancement so that the image of spleen is clearer and easier to analyze. The used method is Region of Interest based image filtering using a MATLAB. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the work is also created to have user friendly analysis. This approach is really suitable for new learners to learn one of the biomedical image processing techniques. From the results, it shows that this method can enhance the image quality especially at the region of interest specified.

Keywords: - Spleen Ultrasound, Image Enhancement, MATLAB, Region of Interest, GUI
248-253  
03.3005/022248253
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8.

COMPUTER ASSISTED MEDICAL HEALTH SYSTEM FOR THE BENEFIT OF HARD TO REACH RURAL AREA

Priti Kalode, Onkar Kemkar, D.A.Deshpande

Abstract

It is a known fact that medical practitioners seldom prefer to work in rural areas. For providing medical help to rural population more particularly to people from hard to reach areas computer assisted medical health system is developed. This paper discusses the method for fast clinical assistance in hard to reach places & its applicability.

Keywords: CAMH, Gynecology, emr
254-259  
03.3005/022254259
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9.

Numerical and Experimental Investigations for Effect of Gravity to the Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Phenomena of Microchannel Heat Exchangers

Thanhtrung Dang, Ngoctan Tran, Jyh-tong Teng

Abstract

For both numerically and experimentally, effect of gravity on the heat transfer and fluid flow phenomenon of microchannel heat exchangers was presented. The influence was determined by two cases: one with horizontal channels, the other with vertical channels. For vertical channels, the hot water is flowing upward which is against the gravitational field, while the cold water is flowing downward which is in the same direction as the gravitational field. In this study, the difference between the results obtained from horizontal channels and those from vertical ones is negligibly small; the impact of gravity on the fluid through the microchannel heat exchangers was found to be small, with the maximum difference between the two cases being less than 8%. The results obtained from numerical simulation and experimental data are in good agreement. In addition, good agreements were also achieved between the results obtained in the present study and the results obtained in literatures.

Keywords: micro heat exchanger, gravity, heat transfer rate, pressure drop, performance index.
260-270  
03.3005/022260270
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10.

OPERATION ON IDEALS

Adagba O Henry

Abstract

We provide basic operations on ideals such as addition, intersection, multiplication, the formation of ideal quotients, radicals, and the extensions and contractions of ideals.

Keywords: Ideals, Commutative Algebra, Integral Domain, Field, Commutative Rings, Extensions of Ideals, Contraction of Ideals.
271-277  
03.3005/022271277
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11.

COMMUNICATION BY 31 BIT HAMMING CODE TRANSCEIVER WITH EVEN PARITY AND ODD PARITY CHECK METHOD BY USING VHDL

Mr.Brajesh Kumar Gupta, Prof. Rajeshwar Lal Dua

Abstract

In communication system communication is possible in three modes. They are simplex, half duplex and full duplex mode. Here, we are working on full duplex mode by using the property of transceiver. Transceiver can transmits and receives data simultaneously. Here we generate 31 bit code to transmit 25 bit information data. And also find 25 bit actual information data from 31 bit received code. To generate 31 bit data string form 25 bit actual information data for transmission at transmitting end we use Hamming code method. Here we also use Hamming code methodology for finding 25 bit actual information data from received 31 bit data string at receiving end. To transmit 25 bit actual information data by using Hamming code even parity and odd parity check method we have to add 5 redundancy bits and 1 bit for deciding the type of parity used (even parity and odd parity ) in actual data string . After adding these 6 bits in 25 bit information data we get 31 bit data string for transmission at transmitting end. At receiver section, we find 25 bit actual information data string from 31 bit received data string. To find 25 bit information data from 31 bit received data sting we need 5 bit for finding error bit location (if any single bit or double bit error is occurred) and 1 bit is needed for selecting the same parity check method, which we have used at transmitting end. Here we have written VHDL code for generating 31 bit data string code form 25 bit information data by Hamming code even parity and odd parity check methodology for transmission at transmitting end. Here we also written VHDL code at receiving end for finding 25 bit actual information data from received 31 bit data string code by Hamming code even parity and odd parity check method. Here we have used Xilinx ISE 10.1 simulator to simulate this VHDL code. Xilinx simulator is a tool which is used for simulation of VHDL, Verilog HDL and schematic circuits. In this paper we have described, what is communication and their respective mode in detail, in communication section. In this paper we have also described, what is Hamming code and how it can generate 31 bit data for transmission by 25 bit information data at transmitting end, and how it can find 25 bit actual information from 31 bit received data string at receiving end. In this paper, we have also described what transceiver is and how it works for communication at transmitting and receiving end. Till now, from transmitting end we can only transmit data, not receive. And at receiving end we can only receive data but can‟t transmit. Now, we can transmit as well as receive data at both ends (transmitting and receiving end) by using transceiver at both ends.

Keywords- Hamming code , even parity check method , odd parity check method , redundancy bit , transceiver, transmitter , receiver , VHDL, Xilinx ISE 10.1 simulato
278-288  
03.3005/022278288
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12.

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF CERTAIN TRIAZOLE CONTAINING S-TRIAZINE DERIVED COMPOUND

Dr.K.N.Sarmah, Dr.N.K.Sarmah, Talha V.Patel, K.B.Kurmi

Abstract

Some new substituted 1,3,5 triazine with 1,2,4 triazole and substituted urea/thiourea were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative strains using a microdilution procedure. Synthesized compounds 1a to 1i prove to be effective with MIC (mg/ ml), among them 1c, 1e, 1g showed excellent activity against a panel of microorganisms. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized using IR, 1H-NMR.

Keywords: - 1, 2, 4 Triazole, Substituted urea/thiourea, Cyanuric chloride and Antimicrobial activity.
289-293  
03.3005/022289293
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13.

A NOVEL APPROACH ON SIMULATION OF VOLTAGE SAGS/SWELLS MITIGATION USING DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR)

S.Radha Krishna Reddy, G. Rameshwar Rreddy, V. Hari Padma Priyanka, K. Ramakrishna Reddy, I.V.Koteswara Rao

Abstract

This paper describes the problem of voltage sags and swells and its severe impact on non linear loads or sensitive loads. The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has become popular as a cost effective solution for the protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags and swells. The control of the voltages in DVR based on dqo algorithm is discussed. It first analyzes the power circuit of a DVR system in order to come up with appropriate control limitations and control targets for the compensation voltage control. The proposed control scheme is simple to design. Simulation results carried out by Matlab/Simulink verify the performance of the proposed method.

Keywords- Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), voltage sags, voltage swells, sensitive load.
294-299  
03.3005/022294299
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14.

NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE DESIGN FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION OF ECG BY WAVELET

Priyanka Agrawal, Dr. A. K. Wadhwani

Abstract

This paper deals with the designing of feed forward neural network (FFNN) with the effect of ANN parameters for feature extraction of ECG signal by employing wavelet decomposition. Extraction of ECG features has a significance role in disease diagnosis of heart.ECG signal is decomposed in to it's higher and lower frequency components by using Daubechies wavelet then statistical features of all components are given as input of neural network. A Multi-layer Feed forward Neural Network (MFNN) employing back propagation algorithm is used for learning and to train the ANN. The ANN is designed and trained by MATLAB software. Effect of ANN parameters on error is also found out. Two different type of ECG signals has been taken from MIT-BIH: Normal rhythm(128 Hz) and Atrial fibrillation(250 Hz).

Keywords: ECG; Wavelet decomposition; Features ; Neural Network.
300-305  
03.3005/022300305
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15.

SELECTION OF MIXED SAMPLING PLANS WITH CONDITIONAL DOUBLE SAMPLING PLAN AS ATTRIBUTE PLAN INDEXED THROUGH MAPD AND LQL USING IRPD


R. Sampath Kumar, R. Vijaya Kumar, R. Radhakrishnan

Abstract

This paper presents the procedure for the construction and selection of mixed sampling plan (MSP) using Intervened Random effect Poisson Distribution (IRPD) as a baseline distribution. Having the conditional double sampling plan as attribute plan, the plans are constructed through limiting quality level (LQL) and maximum allowable percent defective (MAPD). Tables are constructed for easy selection of the plan.

Key Words And Phrases: intervened random effect poisson distribution, limiting quality level, mixed sampling plan, maximum allowable percent defective, operating characteristic, poisson, intervened random effect poisson distribution. AMS (2000) Subject Classification Number: Primary: 62P30 Secondary: 62D05
306-313  
03.3005/022306313
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16.

REDUCTION OF POWER LINE INTERFERENCE IN ECG SIGNAL USING FIR FILTER

Ms. Geeta Kadam, Prof.P.C.Bhaskar

Abstract

Filtering of power line interference is very meaningful in the measurement of biomedical events recording, particularly in the case of recording signals as weak as the ECG. The available filters for power line interference either need a reference channel or regard the frequency as fixed 50/60Hz. Methods of noise reduction have decisive influence on performance of all electro-cardio-graphic (ECG) signal processing systems. This work deals with problems of power line interference reduction. Some analogue and digital approaches to this problem are presented and its properties, advantages and disadvantages are shown. Present paper deals with design and development of digital FIR equiripple filter. The basic ECG has the frequency range from .5Hz to 100Hz.

Keywords- Electrocardiogram, Simulation, Equiripple Filter, Real Time Filtering, Noise reduction.
314-319  
03.3005/022314319
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17.

PERFORMANCE OF WAVELET PACKET TRANSFORM BASED ENERGY DETECTOR FOR SPECTRUM SENSING

Ms. Shrutika S. Sawant, Prof. M. S. Kumbhar

Abstract

Today wireless field is rapidly evolving. Due to the large number of standards, spectrum availability has become an important issue. In this context, an emerging technology, cognitive radio (CR) has been come out to solve this spectrum scarcity problem. The most important function of cognitive radio is spectrum sensing which requires more accuracy & low complexity. In this paper we analyze the performance of energy detector spectrum sensing algorithm based on wavelet packet transform (WPT) in cognitive radio.

Keywords- Cognitive radio (CR), Energy detection (ED), Primary user (PU), Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT).
320-324  
03.3005/022320324
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18.

WEB MINING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Aishwarya Rastogi, Smita Gupta, Srishti Agarwal, Nimisha Agarwal

Abstract

Currently, World-Wide Web has developed to a distributed information space with nearly 100 million workstations and several billion pages, which brings the people great trouble in finding needed information although huge amount of information available on webs. The search engine is a very important tool for people to obtain information on Internet, but the low-precision and low-recall exist widely in current search engines. With the rapid development of Internet, the effective and accurate intelligent search engine based on the Web mining technology has become the most important research issue. Web Data Mining is an important area of Data Mining which deals with the extraction of interesting knowledge from the World Wide Web. It can be classified into three different types. Web content mining, web structure mining and web usages mining. Through this paper we presents a view about how to extract the useful and relevant information on the web using web mining and also give the superficial knowledge and brief comparison about data mining. This paper discusses the current, past and future of web mining. Here we introduce online resources for retrieval Information on the web i.e. web content mining, and the discovery of user access patterns from web servers, i.e. web usage mining that improve the data mining drawback. Furthermore, we also described web mining through cloud computing i.e. cloud mining. That can be seen as future of Web Mining.

Keywords- Data mining: Web Mining; Web Content Mining; Web Structure Mining; Web Usage Mining; Semantic Web; Cloud Mining.
325-331  
03.3005/022325331
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19.

MEDICAL IMAGE COMPRESSION USING REGION GROWING SEGMENATION

R.Arun, Dr.D.Murugan

Abstract

The easy, rapid, and reliable digital transmission and storage of medical and biomedical images would be a tremendous boon to the practice of medicine. Patients in rural areas could have convenient access to second opinions. Patients readmitted to hospitals could have earlier imaging studies instantly available. Rather than waiting for others to finish with hardcopy films, medical and surgical teams collaborating on patient care could have simultaneous access to imaging studies on monitors throughout the hospital. This long-term digital archiving or rapid transmission is prohibitive without the use of image compression to reduce the file sizes. As medical/biological imaging facilities move towards complete film-less imaging, compression plays a key role. Although lossy compression techniques yield high compression rates, the medical community has been reluctant to adopt these methods, largely for legal reasons, and has instead relied on lossless compression techniques that yield low compression rates. The true goal is to maximize compression while maintaining clinical relevance and balancing legal risk. Now-a-days in medical field the digitized medical information such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), generates increasingly important volumes of data is an important challenge to deal with is the storage, retrieval and transmission requirements of enormous data, from one place to another place for urgent purpose including medical images. Compression is one of the indispensable techniques to solve this problem. In this paper we offer a lossless compression method with the segmentation for compression of medical images. In this method the medical image is segmented and compressed by wavelet method to increase the compression ratio and to store in a less space. Here we use the CT and MRI images and analyzed in detail.

332-336  
03.3005/022332336
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20.

Security Enhanced Dynamic Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

Ms. Nidhi Bansod

Abstract

In this project we deal fully about the security which has become one of the major issues for data communication for wired and wireless networks. Different from the past work on the designs of cryptography and system infrastructure, a dynamic routing algorithm is proposed that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as Routing Information protocol in wired networks and Destination sequenced distance vector protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. An analytic study on the proposed algorithm is presented, and a series of simulation experiments are conducted to verify the analytic results and to show the capability of proposed algorithm. In the past decades, various security-enhanced measures have been proposed to improve the security of data transmission over public networks. Existing work on data transmission includes the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures and security enhanced routing methods. The main objective of the project is to propose a dynamic routing algorithm to improve the security of data transmission.

Keywords- Cryptography algorithms, Destination Sequenced Distance Vector routing protocol,security.
337-339  
03.3005/022337339
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21.

3D modelling of the oldest olive tree of the world

Emmanuel Maravelakis, Nikolaos Bilalis, Irini Mantzorou, Antonios Konstantaras, Aristomenis Antoniadis

Abstract

The Monumental Olive Tree of Vouves, known as the oldest olive tree in the World is an important part of our cultural heritage. Branches from this olive tree were used for the wreath bestowed upon the winners in the Olympic Games in Beijing and Athens and the winners of the Classic Marathon in Kalimarmaron Stadium. This ancient tree became an inspiration for sending messages of peace and hope worldwide. The process of developing a geometrically accurate 3D model of the Monumental Olive Tree of Vouves, using modern reverse engineering techniques is described in this paper and its complexity is analysed and compared to other scanned objects. The derived 3D model allows for a twofold employment: a) the creation of a virtual model for internet dissemination activities, and b) the enabling of enhanced possibilities for scientific study and analysis of the tree.

Keywords: oldest olive tree, terrestrial laser scanning, 3d tree model, complex tree physiognomy
340-348  
03.3005/022340348
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22.

ANALYSIS AND COMPARISION OF IMAGE SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

Mrs. Bharati R. Jipkate, Dr. Mrs. V. V. Gohokar

Abstract

The image segmentation is a key process of the image analysis. The goal of image segmentation is to partition an image into a set of disjoint regions with uniform and homogeneous attributes such as intensity, color, tone or texture etc.There are various methods for segmentation. The main aim of this project is to compare the performance of image segmentation algorithms on real images .The influence of the variation in background, the object characteristics diversity and the noise is taken into consideration while comparing the methods.

Index Terms— Segmentation, segmentation methodssegmentation algorithms.
349-352  
03.3005/022349352
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23.

ANALYSIS OF SELF-EXITED INDUCTION GENERATOR FOR ISOLATED SYSTEM

Ashish Gupta, Dr. Sulochana Wadhwani

Abstract

Self exited Induction generators are widely used in non conventional energy systems such as wind, micro/mini hydro, etc. The squirrel cage induction generator is simple, reliable, cheap, lightweight, ruggedness, and requires very little maintenance. This paper presents the self-excitation and modeling, steady-state, performance analysis and generating schemes of induction generators.

Keywords: self-exited induction generator; steady-state and performance analysis; generating schemes.
353-358  
03.3005/022353358
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24.

Data Security Using LSB & DCT Steganography In Images

Deepak Singla, Rupali Syal

Abstract

Steganography is a technique of hiding information in digital media. In contrast to cryptography, it is not to keep others from knowing the hidden information but it is to keep others from thinking that the information even exists.In this paper, we propose a LSB & DCT-based steganographic method for hiding the data. Each bit of data is embedded by altering the least significant bit of low frequency DCT coefficients of cover image blocks. There are some techniques to utilizes the idea of SSB-4 technique in modifying the other bits (i.e, 1st , 2nd, 3rd and/or 4th), to obtain the minimum variation between the original and the modified coefficient. The experimental results show that this algorithm has better PSNR value and high capacity in comparison to other techniques such as LSB, modulus arithmetic, SSB4-DCT. It also maintains satisfactory security as secret message cannot be extracted without knowing the decoding algorithm. This is achieved using a Public Private key. It combined both feature of Steganography and cryptography.

Keywords: Authentication, Discrete Cosine Transform, Privacy, Steganography, Zigzag scanning.
359-364  
03.3005/022359364
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25.

Implementation of AMBA AHB protocol for Wide Narrow BUS-SLAVE combination using VHDL

Varsha vishwarkama, Abhishek choubey, Arvind Sahu

Abstract

The Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA) is an open System-on-Chip bus protocol for high-performance buses on low-power devices. In this paper we implement a simple model of AMBA and use model checking and theorem proving to verify latency, arbitration, coherence and deadlock freedom properties of the implementation. Typical microprocessor and memory verifications assume direct connections between processors, peripherals and memory, and zero latency data transfers. They abstract away the data transfer infrastructure as it is not relevant to the verification. However, this infrastructure is in itself quite complex and worthy of formal verification. The Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture1 (AMBA) is an open System-on-Chip bus protocol for high-performance buses on low-power devices. In this report we implement a simple model of AMBA and verify latency, arbitration, coherence and deadlock freedom properties of the implementation. The verification is conducted using a model checker for the modal μ-calculus Lμ, that has been embedded in the HOL theorem prover [3]. This allows results from the model checker to be represented as HOL theorems for full compositionality with more abstract theorems proved in HOL using a formal model theory of Lμ that we have also developed [4].

Keywords: AMBA, VHDL, ASB, APB, DMA, EDAROM, RAM, System-on chip.
365-368  
03.3005/022365368
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26.

Host Based Information Gathering Honeypots for Network Security

M. Purushotham Reddy, K. Subba Reddy, M. Indra Sena Reddy

Abstract

Honeypots are an exciting new technology which is widely used in the areas of computer and Internet security that, allows us to turn the tables on the bad guys. It is a resource, which is intended to be attacked and computerized to gain more information about the attacker, and used tools. Compared to an intrusion detection system, honeypots have the big advantage that they do not generate false alerts as each observed traffic is suspicious, because no productive components are running in the system. The goal of this paper is to show the possibilities of honeypots and their use in research as well as productive environment.

Keywords: Levels of honeypots, Internet security, Network traffic, Firewall authentication.
369-374  
03.3005/022369374
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27

PULSE DIAGNOSIS BASED AUTOMATED DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM

Mr. Bharat S. Shete, Dr.Prof. A. B. Kakade

Abstract

To diagnose disease, western medicine looks inside of patient's body using many devices such as MRI, city scan etc. but oriental medicine does not explore the root cause. Wrist is one of the best parts of our body to detect a pulse signal and in Ayurveda the wrist pulse has been used as a fundamental element for diagnosis. It has many properties and by perceiving these features, doctors can diagnose disease. Ayurveda is one of the most comprehensive healing systems in the world and has classified the body system according to the theory of Tridosha (vata, pitta, kapha) to overcome ailments. Diagnosis similar to the traditional pulse-based method requires a system of clean input signals, and extensive experiments for obtaining classification features. So we briefly describe our system of generating pulse waveforms and use various feature detecting methods to show that an arterial pulse contains typical physiological properties. By reading the signal from the sensors that are send to transmitters and amplifier and a DC (digitizer) for quantifying analog signal.
375-378  
03.3005/022375378
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28

Application of ANN to Predict Liquefaction Potential


Vijay Kumar, Kumar Venkatesh, R. P. Tiwari, Yeetendra Kumar

Abstract

This study refers to the prediction of liquefaction potential of alluvial soil by artificial neural network models. To meet the objective 160 data sets from field and laboratory tests were collected for the development of ANN models. Initially these data sets were used to determine liquefaction parameters like cyclic resistance ratio and cyclic stress ratio by Idriss and Boulanger method to identify the liquefaction prone areas. Artificial neural network models were trained with six input vectors by optimum numbers of hidden layers, epoch and suitable transfer functions. Out of 160 data sets, 133 data sets were used for development of models and 27 datasets were used for validating the models. The predicted values of liquefaction potential by artificial neural networks models have been compared with Idriss and Boulanger method, which exhibits that trained artificial neural networks models are capable of predicting soils liquefaction potential adequately.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cyclic Resistance Ratio, Cyclic Stress Ratio, Idriss and Boulanger method, Liquefaction Potential.
379-389  
03.3005/022379389
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29

Development of Thermistor Linearization Circuit based on Modified 555 Timer using LabVIEW

Ayushi Srivastava, Vaishnavi A.R.S.N, Mahesh Prasad. M, Rama Rao.P, K.V.L.Narayana

Abstract

Thermistors have high sensitivity which makes them suitable for various applications, but they exhibit a highly nonlinear resistance-temperature relationship which is exponential in nature. This nonlinearity is an important problem and a lot of research has been dedicated to correct it. In this paper a virtual instrument has been developed based on the modified 555 timer circuit using LabVIEW to obtain a linearized characteristic. The possibility of developing the proposed instrument as a temperature sensor with frequency as output has been investigated through simulation. It has been shown that the linearization of the thermistor characteristic is achieved by selecting the suitable parameters of the thermistor, the frequency determining elements and the control voltage of modified 555 timer circuit without connecting any additional elements. The experimentally obtained characteristics have a good match with the theoretically obtained characteristics through the investigations conducted in this paper. In a specific range of temperature the proposed circuit is characterized by high temperature stability, improved sensitivity and nonlinearity of about ±1%.

Keywords: Thermistor, Linearization, Modified 555, LabVIEW, Temperature Sensor, Data Acquisition.
390-394  
03.3005/022390394
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30

A Computer Program for Sizing and Performance Evaluation of Reciprocating Process Gas Compressors

Tonye K. Jack

Abstract

Delivering gas to final header storage tanks or end user locations require the use of pipelines and a means of transporting the gas through the lines. A gas compressor is employed satisfactorily to such needs. Gas compressor types vary (from the dynamic type to the positive displacement type) and which to apply for a particular service requirement will depend on the process conditions. For high pressure delivery, and low gas flow volume process conditions, the positive displacement type of reciprocating compressors is often the choice. Matching the compressor equipment manufacturer's available equipment designs to the various process conditions involves several parameters and requires a detailed selection process conducted by the Engineer. A computer program in Microsoft Excel TM to handle the selection process is described here, with the equations to develop one.

KEYWORDS COMPRESSORS, COMPRESSOR SELECTION, ENGINEERING WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL, GAS COMPRESSOR SIZING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COMPRESSORS, RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR SELECTION.
395-402  
03.3005/022395402
PDF
31

Active Contours, Gvf and Balloon Model

Abhinav Chopra, Seema Rawat, Praveen Kumar

Abstract

One of the substantial techniques in the field of digital image processing is image segmentation. It is excessively used in the field of medicine provides visual means for identification, inspection and tracking of diseases for surgical planning and simulation. Active contours or a snake is an image segmentation technique which is widely used for boundary detection. They are regarded as promising and vigorously researched model-based approach to computer assisted medical image analysis. However, its utility is limited due some problems caused in the traditional methods, i.e. Poor convergence of concavities and small capture range. This paper shows the application a new model for active contours, which comprises of the Balloon Model and the GVF model. This model helps in improving the detection quality of closed edges, thereby resolving the limitations of the traditional snake model.

Index Terms —Active contour models, balloon model, edge detection, gradient vector flow
403-407  
03.3005/022403407
PDF
32

Communication between Host machine and the Host Bus Adapter over PCIE bus using Diagnostic window

Naveen G, Sheetal Kulkarni, Naresh Madhusudhana, K N Raja Rao

Abstract

In this paper a study of the PCIE interface and the Host Bus Adapter is carried and demonstrated the communication between the HBA and the Host through a Diagnostic Window Access of PCIE. The API are written in java to access the DDR3 and flash memory on the HBA The diagnostic method is a back door mechanism to access the register and memory on HBA through PCIE. The flash memory is used to store the firmware from which the HBA becomes operational. The Flash memory is accessed and the following operation is carried out. The Flash erase, Flash read, Flash program and Flash QRY program is successfully demonstrated. The DDR3 Serial Presence Detect-SEEPROM is accessed using I2C protocol which is contains vital information about the timing parameter and the manufacturer information of DDR3 memory. The SPD data is used to initiate the training of any DDR3 chip and to make the DDR3 operational.

Keywords: DDR3, Flash Memory, HBA, PCIE.
408-412  
03.3005/022408412
PDF
33

Routing Protocol for Indoor Monitoring Systems

Prof.Sudipta Bhadra, Prof.Sandipan Dutta and Prof.Tapan Chakrabarti

Abstract

Extreme events like fire can cause massive damage to the indoor area. Damage occurs due to the extreme events can cause in life threatening conditions inside the indoor after that event. In such situation wireless sensor network (WSN) [1] based real time event driven indoor monitoring system is necessary to reduce the loss of human lives by identifying the source of the extreme events inside the hazardous indoor area. In this paper we present a routing protocol for a real time event driven indoor monitoring system which is use for selectively monitor the indoor area after an event occurred like fire. In case of fire the temperature recorded using temperature sensor of the stationary sensor motes as well as mobile sensor motes is very vital. Depending on the floor map of indoor, these sensor motes are placed permanently or temporarily. We need to gather sensed data with position information for tracking down the source of the extreme event based on sub area wise comparison of temperature of the total hazardous indoor area.

Keywords: Indoor Monitoring System, Routing protocol, Hazardous indoor area.
413-416  
03.3005/022413416
PDF
34

Integrated Approach For Domain Dimensional Information Retrieval System By Using Neural Networks, CORBA, ORB.....

R. Kamalakar, P.Pradeep Kumar, P.Sai Prasad , M.Anjan Kumar

Abstract

Search engines are the most commonly used type of tool for finding relevant information on the Internet. However, today's search engines are far from perfect. Typical search queries are short, often one or two words, and can be ambiguous therefore returning inappropriate results. A precise search engine adapted to professional environments which are characterized by a domain (e.g. medicine, law, sport, and so on). In our approach, each domain has its own terminology (i.e. a set of terms that denote its concepts: team, player, etc.) and it is organized along dimensions, such as person, location, etc. The research work is focuses on personalization of information retrieval systems to achieve this we require one architecture that is to developed with immense ground knowledge on open source technologies and great Neural networks and Information retrieval system and there scope and existence. The architecture termed as ISA integrated service architecture.

General Terms—Information retrieval, domain dimensions, user interface, ISA, CORBA,ORB,NEURAL NETWORKS .
417-422  
03.3005/022417422
PDF
35

NODE PROGRESS IN CLUSTER COMPUTING

S.M.Krishna Ganesh, A.SilesBalaSingh

Abstract

The system of cluster computing aims in distributing the process among the CPU to increase speed of processing. The server in the cluster performs the monitoring and load balancing of the clients. Here we aim to schedule the load of the client using a process scheduling node allocation based on the client capability, in a fashion that resembles a single node system. The algorithm can be implemented in any system that supports process migration. The objective is to improve the efficiency of load balancing and scalability in the cluster environment. The paper measures the performance of the algorithm on a MOSIX GRID with maximum of 60 nodes.

KEYWORDS: CLUSTER COMPUTING, CLUSTERING, LOAD BALANCING, MONITORING, PROCESS SCHEDULING.
423-427  
03.3005/022423427
PDF
36

A Two Bus Equivalent Method for Determination of Steady State Voltage Stability Limit of a Power System

B. Venkata Ramana, K. V. S. R. Murthy, P.Upendra Kumar, V.Raja Kumar

Abstract

The problem of voltage instability is gaining more and more importance because of the unusual growth of power systems and insufficient or inefficient reactive power management. The voltage stability problem of a power system is associated with a rapid voltage drop due to heavy system load. Voltage reduction has a cumulative effect unless ample reactive power sources are available to regulate the voltage and maintain the reactive power balance.. In this paper, simple and direct method of determining the steady state voltage stability limit of a power system at a particular load bus is implemented. The maximum permissible loading of a particular load bus is determined through a simplified Two-Bus equivalent model, called "Thevenin's Equivalent" of the original system. This method uses the base-case system information to find special Two-Bus equivalents of the system for analyzing the voltage stability problem. The effectiveness of this method is tested on a simple Two-Bus system and on the IEEE 14 Bus and IEEE 30 Bus systems and the results are compared with Newton- Raphson method. System performance is analyzed with and without a Static Var Compensator (SVC). The effects of load power factor and SVC rating on voltage stability limit are also studied. This method is very simple and does not require repetitive load flow simulations

Index Terms-Voltage Stability, Y-bus, Newton-Raphson Load Flow, Thevenin‟s Equivalent circuit, Q-V curves, Static Var Compensator (SVC)
428-434  
03.3005/022428434
PDF
37

A Fast Gain Stage Suitable for High Performance Pipeline ADCs

Mohammad Nazaraliloo, Saeid Masoumi, Heydar Faraji, Hasan Kalantari

Abstract

A new circuit technique for voltage gain enhancement in CMOS op amp design suitable for low voltage and high speed operation is presented. In this paper, a new operational amplifier is presented that improves the specifications such as dc gain and speed virtually .To obtain these improvements, we have used the two important concepts of positive feedback and replica amplification.

Keywords: Replica amplification, positive feedback, Gain-Bandwidth-product (GBW), single stage amplifier
435-438  
03.3005/022435438
PDF
38

Simulation of Wind driven currents for continental shelf of Golestan
Province (Iran)

Saeed Sharbaty

Abstract

In this Investigation, three dimensional modeling of wind driven currents was done in the continental shelf of Golestan Province using MIKE 3 Model. In order to applying open boundary conditions in both western and northern borders, the results of implemented of two dimensional MIKE 21 model were used in the Caspian Sea. In implementation of MIKE 21 model, reanalysis data of NOAA satellite includes components of wind speed and pressure at sea level with 6 hours time intervals and variable in space and time, as well as input of major rivers and evaporation and Coriolis force is used. In the MIKE 3 HS model, the effects of Atrak, Gorganrood rivers and water exchange with the Gorgan Bay as source and sink has been considered. To applying wind effect on the continental shelf of Golestan Province, the data of Bandartorkaman synoptic station to become changed into the offshore wind. In order to verification of the results of the MIKE 3 model, the flow field measurements were used in two points of solution domain. The model results represented the high influence of wind action on the surface layers and in most cases; currents are along the dominant wind and in direction of southeast area. By moving towards deep area, currents go out from the solution area with the 180 degrees of phase difference from surface currents.

Key Words: Continental Shelf, Golestan Province, 3D Simulation, Wind Driven Currents.
439-448  
03.3005/022439448
PDF
39

ULTRA LOW POWER MODULO MULTIPLIER USING GDI

Pavankumar Reddy S, Mrs.N.Saraswathi, Gnanavargin Rokkala

Abstract

Modulo multiplier is one of the critical components in applications in the area of digital signal processing, data encryption and residue arithmetic that demand high-speed and low-power operation. Ultra low power and low area modulo multiplier is designed using the GDI technology. modulo multiplier has three major functional modules including partial products generation module, partial products reduction module and final stage addition module. The partial products reduction module is completely redesigned using the novel compressors and the final addition module is implemented using a new less complex sparse tree based inverted end-around-carry adder. The resulting modulo multiplier is implemented in GDI cell technology and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively with the existing hardware implementations.

Keywords: Modulo multipliers, Residue Number System (RNS), Compressors, Sparse Tree Adder, GDI technology
449-456  
03.3005/022449456
PDF
40

IMPLEMENTATION OF COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS USING TERNARY MULTIPLEXER


Sweta Giri, Mrs.N.Saraswathi

Abstract

This is the paper presenting a novel method for defining, analyzing and implementing the basic combinational circuitry with less number of ternary multiplexers. Multilplexer is used as basic building block to realize all the combinational and sequential circuitry providing complete, concise, implementation-free description of the ternary function involved. This shows the potential of VHDL modeling and simulation which can be applied to Ternary switching circuits for verifying its functionality and timing specifications. This is the method which is used in analyzing the complex ternary functions and reduction of gate count

Keyword:- Gate count, Multivalued logic, Reabilityunreability model ,VHDL, Ternary switching levels.
457-463  
03.3005/022457463
PDF
41

HYBRID PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED REACTIVE POWER OPTIMIZATION < strong>

Vivek Kumar Jain, Himmant Singh

Abstract

in this paper, a solution to reactive power optimization problem with a Hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach. The algorithm changed the stochastic initialization and adopted a principle of particle searching by itself. Several particles in feasible solutions were used to lead swarms motion and update the performance of the proposed hybrid approach is demonstrated with the IEEE-30and IEEE-57 bus systems and also the performance of this hybrid PSO is compared with that of particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm and evolutionary programming. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the previous approaches reported in the iterative. The performance of hybrid PSO seems to be better in terms of solution quality and computational times.

Keywords— reactive power optimization, particle swarm optimization, evolutionary programming, and hybrid approach and loss minimization.
464-469  
03.3005/022464469
PDF
42

Renewable Energy Sources- The Ultimate Source of Survival &
Management of resources

Prof. Chavan Dattatraya K, Prof. L. S Utpat, Prof. Dr. G. S. Tasgaonkar, Sandeep Shinde, Patil Sameer G.

Abstract

Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds of work by human beings and nature. Whatever happens in the world is only the expression of flow of energy in either of its forms. Out of the known World petroleum reserves, only a part may be technically economically feasible to explore. This fact, coupled with the present and expected consumption rates implies that these reserves may not last beyond the next 30 years. For India, the situation could be even more difficult. Given limited reserves, present known stocks may not last even 10 years at the current consumption rate. At one end, the rapid industrialization has led to increased use of fossil fuels such as coal, oil etc, to meet its power and steam requirement. For which, the developing nations like India are paying huge import bills putting stress on economy. At other end, a naturally available energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, biogas etc are not effectively used. India has potential to generate 45,000 MW from wind energy, 19,000 MW from biomass energy, 15,000 MW from small hydro projects. In addition to it the urban areas in India produce @ 30 millions of solid waste and 4400 Million cubic meters of liquid waste every year. The same can be exploited to generate power and meet a part of the ever increasing demand of urban areas. Therefore, the need of the hour is to conserve petroleum by its judicious use, substituting it by other resources wherever techno-commercially feasible and restricting its use only to the essential needs. In this paper we will see that even though the resources are depleting, but we cannot stop using them, therefore we will explore the data through which we can understand how the renewable sources of energy can be used and applied effectively.

Key words: Energy, Renewable, Solar energy, Wind energy, Biogas, Geothermal energy etc;
470-474  
03.3005/022470474
PDF
43

Fast Fractal Image Compression Scheme

Hitashi, Sugandha Sharma

Abstract

Compression and decompression tools of digital image has become a significant aspect in the storing and transferring of digital image. Fractal image compression technique is recently used to compress images. The main problem with fractal image compression is that it takes a lot of computational time for searching blocks (domain block and range block) and then compares these blocks. There are many optimization techniques which are used to improve efficiency of fractal image compression. Some of these are particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization and biogeography based optimization. In this paper the technique of biogeography based optimization (BBO) is applied for fractal image compression (FIC).With the help of this evolutionary algorithm effort is made to reduce the search complexity of matching between range block and domain block. The main drawback of FIC is that it involves more computational time due to global search. In order to improve the computational time and also the satisfactory quality of the decoded image, BBO algorithm is proposed. Investigational outcome show that the BBO is a better method than the traditional comprehensive search method in terms of encoding time. Results are calculated from wavelet based fractal image compression than BBO is applied over it to decrease the encode time and get better visual quality of image. In this paper compression time (encoding time) of fractal image compression is reduced.

Keywords: fractal image compression, biogeography based optimization (BBO), encoding time, suitability index variables (sivs).
475-480  
03.3005/022475480
PDF
44

Analysis Of Flow Induced Vibration In Superheater Tube Bundles In
Utility Boilers Using Computational Method

Aditya Kumar Pandey, L.A.Kumaraswamidhas, C.Kathirvelu

Abstract

Flow induced vibration in tube bundles subjected to cross flow has been known for a long time. In boilers, tube bundles carrying steam or water are subjected to cross flow of flue gases. This flow causes external forces which may generate vibrations and sound in the boiler during their regular operation. These vibrations can result in tube thinning at support points and consequent leakage or damage to tubes, damage to structural attachments as well as insulation cladding provided around the enclosure. Hence, it is required to predict the occurrence of flow induced vibrations early-on and address the problem. This paper focuses on the flow induced vibration phenomenon of vortex shedding and acoustic resonance in horizontal Low Temperature Superheater (LTSH) tube bundles in utility boilers at full load operation. Computational fluid dynamics tools have been used to perform the flow analysis. The results have been used to predict the occurrence of vortex shedding and acoustic resonance phenomenon and to calculate the amplitude of vibration. Validation has been conducted as per experimental results and confirmed that the methodology adopted holds suitable. The sources of error and their effect on the model in deviation of the conditions from the actual ones have also been discussed.

Keywords: Acoustic resonance, Flow induced vibration, Low temperature super heater, Vortex shedding
481-486  
03.3005/022481486
PDF
45

Air Pollution reduction in metal industry using residual gas and natural gas combustion

K. Sridhar, J. Abbas Mohaideen

Abstract

Air pollution is the effect of atmosphere getting filled with toxic chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damaging the environment. Basic air pollutants found in an industrial belt are CO, NOx, SOx, HC and PM. These pollutants are dispersed throughout the atmosphere in concentrations depending on the point of origin. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of gases generated from coal used in a steel plant the combustion of Natural gas and coke oven gas (residual gases from steel plant blast furnace ) results in pollutants. The residual gases of blast furnace and coke oven are characterized by reduced lower heating values(LHV) and high content of carbon monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen(N2) and Hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Combustion of these fuels leads to increased emission of pollutants. Formation of these pollutants are influenced by excess O2 of combustion, the case with less excess air (10%) was numerically simulated on a steam generator furnace. The study was done in a 230MW, water-tube boiler having vertically aligned burners. It defines the temperature, NO, CO and SO2 distribution in the combustion chamber. The simulation results were compared with the actual boiler furnace measurements (corresponding to 25% excess air).

Key-Words - NO formation, SO2 yield, Coke-oven gas, Low temperature corrosion, LHV.
487-490  
03.3005/022487490
PDF
46

Deque Automata for all classes of Formal languages

B. Asha latha, T. Vishnupriya, N. Himabindu

Abstract

The purpose of computation involves solving problems by communicating them to a computational model by means of a suitable language .A number of languages have been developed for this purpose. To recognize these languages some computational models has been developed and they are finite state machine, push down automata, queue automata and turing machines. But these machines are restricted to only one specific formal languages like regular, context free ,etc. In this paper we proposed a machine called a Dequeue automaton that is capable of recognizing different classes of automata. We also shown that the simulation results from the Deque automata.

Keywords: Formal languages, Finite automata, PDA ,TM.
491-495  
03.3005/022491495
PDF
47

Numerical Solution of Heat and Mass Transfer with thermal radiation and MHD Boundary layer flow over a Stretching Surface with Suction/Injection

Navneet joshi, Manoj Kumar, Sandeep K. Budhani

Abstract

In this research the researchers studied and made an analysis to the effects of suction/Injection, MHD and thermal radiation on mass transfer characteristics over stretching surface. The magneto hydrodynamic flow over a stretching surface with heat and mass transfer, chemical reaction, radiation has been studied. The system of non-linear differential equations has been obtained and transformed in to set of ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformation for the governing flow. This set of ODEs has been solved and results have carried out for different values of the various physical parameters involved in the problem. The results showing the effect of various physical parameters on velocity temperature and concentration profiles have been obtained and presented graphically. The velocity decreases with increasing effect of magnetic parameter while with the increase in radiation parameter, the velocity increases. The mass and momentum transport in laminar boundary layer on moving, stationary and linearly stretching surface has important applications in polymer industry and electrochemistry.

Key Words: Heat and Mass Transfer, MHD flow, chemical reaction, Radiation, Runge-Kutta method with shooting echnique.
496-500  
03.3005/022496500
PDF
48

DESIGN OF PULSE TRIGGERED FLIP FLOP USING PULSE ENHANCEMENT SCHEME

A.Selvakumar, T.Prabakaran

Abstract

For the past several years, much progress has been made in Low power VLSI Design .In This paper ,a novel low-power pulse Triggered flip- flop design is presented. First, the pulse generation control logic an AND function, is removed from critical path to facilitate a faster discharge operation. A simple two-transistor AND gate design is used to reduce the circuit complexity. Second, a conditional pulse-enhancement technique is devised to speed up the discharge along the critical path only when needed. As a result, transistor sizes in delay inverter and pulse-generation circuit can be reduced for saving. Various post layout simulation results based on UMC CMOS 90-nm technology reveal that the proposed design features the best power-delay-product performance in four FF designs under comparison.

Keywords: Flip flop, low power and pulse-triggered
501-504  
03.3005/022501504
PDF
49

AUGMENTED REALITY ON GPS NAVIGATION (ARGPS)

Murugavel. KN

Abstract

Augmented Reality is a new and upcoming field of technology aimed at providing information to the user via Optical methods. It consists of portable hardware and light software that enable the user to get extra information about his environment that would generally require a desktop computer or some form of a handheld device. Augmented Reality GPS Navigation is a conceptual project that is aimed at creating an Augmented Reality Interface and implementing a GPS based navigation application.

Keywords –Gult, Xact, Glew, Glee, Glaux, Ar.
505-511  
03.3005/022505511
PDF
50

Issues Involved In Speech To Text Conversion

Er. Jaspreet Kaur, Er. Nidhi, Ms. Rupinderdeep Kaur

Abstract

This document presents various Speech Recognition issues in Indian script. STT synthesis is an online application to convert the speech into the text form. The term "voice recognition" is sometimes used to refer to recognition systems that must be trained to a particular speaker—as is the case for most desktop recognition software. Recognizing the speaker can simplify the task of translating speech. Speech recognition is the process of converting an acoustic waveform into the text similar to the information being conveyed by the speaker. Speech is the most natural way of communication. It includes the fundamentals of speech recognition & different issues like commands by using hyperlink, effectiveness, overlapping speech, low signal to noise ratio, homonyms.
512-515  
03.3005/022512515
PDF
51

RANDOMIZED ROUTES FOR SECURE DATA TRANSMISSION USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

C.Muthuramalingam, A.Karthikeyan, R.Bharathiraj, M.Muthukummaar, S.Edwin Raja

Abstract

Compromised node and denial of service are two key attacks in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we study data delivery mechanisms that can with high probability circumvent black holes formed by these attacks. We argue that classic multipath routing approaches are vulnerable to such attacks, mainly due to their deterministic nature. So once the adversary acquires the routing algorithm, it can compute the same routes known to the source, hence, making all information sent over these routes vulnerable to its attacks. In this paper, we develop mechanisms that generate randomized multipath routes. Under our designs, the routes taken by the "shares" of different packets change over time. So even if the routing algorithm becomes known to the adversary, the adversary still cannot pinpoint the routes traversed by each packet. Besides randomness, the generated routes are also highly dispersive and energy efficient, making them quite capable of circumventing black holes. We analytically investigate the security and energy performance of the proposed schemes. We also formulate an optimization problem to minimize the end-to-end energy consumption under given security constraints. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the validity of our mechanisms.
516-519  
03.3005/022516519
PDF
52

LOW POWER WITH IMPROVED NOISE MARGIN FOR DOMINO
CMOS NAND GATE

Pushpa Raikwal, V. Neema, S. Katiyal

Abstract

With the advancement in semiconductor technology, chip density and operating frequency are increasing, so the power
consumption in VLSI circuits has become a major problem of consideration. More power consumption increases packaging
cost and also reduces the battery life of the devices. So it has become necessity of the VLSI circuits to reduce the dynamic as
well as the static power consumption. To reduce leakage power it is necessary to increase the threshold voltage of the circuit. In
this paper to reduce the leakage power AVL (Adaptive Voltage Level) circuit technique and Body biasing technique are used.
Our paper proposes a technique for reducing power dissipation of CMOS VLSI design while simultaneously improving the
noise immunity.
Keywords: AVL circuit technique, CMOS, Noise immunity, VLSI circuit.
520-525  
03.3005/022520525
PDF
53

Batch Signature for Mixed Signals in Wireless Networks

Battula Sudheer Kumar, P. Anjaiah

Abstract

In wireless networks interference is considered has a major problem. So, in order to avoid the interference we use the technique called mixing signal (Network Coding). The problem here is there are vulnerable to possible malicious attacks. i.e., if any of the intruder knows the information of other signal in the mixed signal they can be decoded easily. In order to resolve this problem we are proposing a good secure network coding scheme batch signature for mixed signal. So with the above network coding scheme we are providing a security to the signal.

Keywords: Batch Signature, Pollution Attack, RSA, Network Coding.
526-528  
03.3005/022526528
PDF
54

Sinusoidal PWM Based Modified Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

M.Murugesan, R.Sakthivel, E. Muthukumaran, R.Sivakumar

Abstract

In this paper, an H-bridge inverter topology with reduced switch count technique is introduced. This technique reduces the number of controlled switches used in conventional multilevel inverter. To establish a single phase system, the proposed multilevel inverter requires one H-bridge and a multi conversion cell. A multi conversion cell consists of three equal voltage sources with three controlled switches and three diodes. In conventional method, twelve controlled switches are used to obtain seven levels. Due to involvement of twelve switches the harmonics, switching losses, cost and total harmonic distortion are increased. This proposed topology also increases the level to seven with only seven controlled switches. It dramatically reduces the complexity of control circuit, cost, lower order harmonics and thus effectively reduces total harmonic distortion.

Keywords- Cascaded Multilevel Inverter, H-bridge Inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor.
529-539  
03.3005/022529539
PDF
55

A Comparative Analysis Of Two Position Based Hybrid Routing
Algorithms Over MANETs.

Mr. Chethan Chandra S Basavaraddi, Smt. Geetha N.B.

Abstract

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. In a mobile ad hoc network, nodes move arbitrarily; therefore the network may experience rapid and unpredictable topology changes. Here each node participating in the network acts as host and a router and therefore must forward packets for other nodes. Because nodes in a MANET normally have limited transmission ranges, some nodes cannot communicate directly with each other. Hence, routing paths in mobile ad hoc networks potentially contain multiple hops, and every node in mobile ad hoc networks has the responsibility to act as a router. Researches in this area are mostly simulation based, and in this paper we will be analyzing the performance of DWI-PBHRA routing protocol with the PBHRA. In the performance evaluation of the protocol, the protocols are tested under the realistic conditions including evaluating performance when applied to variable pause times and constant number of nodes we perform extensive simulations using NS-2 simulator.

Keywords: Hybrid routing, Extended battery life, Manet, Position Based Routing, Ad-Hoc Networks, Mobility.
540-546  
03.3005/022540546
PDF
56

Database Architecture with Row and Column stores

Mrs G.Prisilla Jayanthi

Abstract

Data warehouses perform better with Column Stores as they involve analytical applications like reporting from the information present in them. However, there are reports other than the Informational reports that business organizations need. Real-time reports, called the Operational Reports are needed. Operational reporting differs from informational reporting in that its scope is on day-to-day operations and thus requires data on the detail of individual transactions. It is often not desirable to maintain data on such detailed level in the data warehouse and the update frequency required for operational reports. Therefore, a Hybrid Row-Column database architecture is proposed. An OLTP database architecture that serves the conventional OLTP load out of a row-store database and serves operational reporting queries out of a column-store database which holds the subset of the data in the row store required for operational reports. The column-store is updated within the transaction of the row database; hence OLTP changes are directly reflected in operational reports. The project done with SAP AG have been studied and the results of are described here. The described solution for Operational Reporting was implemented in SAP Business ByDesign and SAP Business Warehouse. Row and Column stores along with their applications have been briefed. Then Operational Reporting is described as being different from Informational Reporting and the need for Operational reporting is identified. As the Hybrid Row-Column Database Architecture for Operational reporting solution was implemented in SAP Business ByDesign and SAP Business Warehouse, SAP Business ByDesign, TREX and MaxDB have been discussed briefly.
547-554  
03.3005/022547554
PDF
57

TENSOR PAIRS FOR FERROTOROIDAL MOMENT

M.Vijaya Laxmi, Prof.S.Uma Devi

Abstract

The form of Physical property tensors invariant under point groups and their Subgroups can determine the basis for the classification of domain pairs in ferroic Crystals. In a ferroic Crystal containing two or more equally stable domains of the same structure but of different spatial orientation, macroscopic tensorial physical properties that are different in domains, determine a tensor distinction of the domains. In this paper, we have calculated the ferrotoroidic tensor pairs, using double Coset decomposition of all 324 ferroic Species, taking 32 grey groups as prototypic point groups.

Key Words: Ferroic point group. Ferrotoroidic, Grey group, Prototypic point group, tensor pairs , toroidal moment.
555-561  
03.3005/022555561
PDF
58

Seasonal Variation Of Ground Water Quality And Its Suitability For Drinking In And Around Tiptur Town, Tumkur District, Karnataka, India: A WQI Approach.

S.B.Basavaraddi, Heena Kousar, E.T .Puttaiah

Abstract

A water quality index provides a single number that expresses over all water quality at certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex quality data in to information that is understandable and useable by the public. Seven most important physico- chemical parameters such as PH, Total dissolved solids Total hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride and Nitrate were taken for the calculation of WQI of ground water to assess the impact of pollutants due over exploitation, Domestic sewage, mining operation, agriculture ,human activities on ground water quality. The water quality index values for the ground water ranged between 83.9-138.5 during pre monsoon and 67.91 -130.5 during Post monsoon season. In the present investigation the quality of water was found to be good in all the sampling locations in tiptur town and surrounding areas.

Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Human activities, complex quality data, Public.
562-567  
03.3005/022562567
PDF
59

Integration of GIS and Artificial Neural Network for prediction of Ozone Concentration in Semi-rural areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad

Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Neelam Aziz, Madiha Ejaz, Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah

Abstract

Ozone is one of the most effective pollutants in lower atmosphere. Concentration of ozone in atmosphere reveals its impact on plants, human and on other organic materials. Many techniques had been used in past to calculate the concentration of ozone with the help of other environmental factors like wind, humidity, rainfall, temperature and etc. Prediction models like artificial neural network have gained much reputation in calculating accurate results with learning data. This paper shows a study of integration of predicted ozone concentration from neural network and GIS. The study initiated with data collection from the study area. The collected data is then fed to neural network as training data to get the concentrations of ozone with input variables temperature, humidity and rainfall. The study shows the great dependence of ozone concentration upon environmental factors. Finally the results are spatially interpolated with the help of GIS.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network Model (ANN), Climatic Variables, Geographic Information System (GIS), Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, Semi-rural areas, Tropospheric ozone concentration,
568-574  
03.3005/022568574
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60

H.264 Based Video Co mpressio n

Pranob K Charles, Ch.Srinivasu, V.Harish, M Swathi, Ch.Deepthi

Abstract

A raw video takes up a lot of space for storage and bandwidth for transmission. Uncompressed video from a video recording device may take up about 20 MB per second of video. Thus, there is a clear necessity for an efficient mechanism which enables the video to be stored and transmitted over limited bandwidths. Compression can be broadly classified into two types, lossy compression and lossless compression. In lossy compression, the video is compressed to very low bit rates which considerably reduce the quality of the video whereas in lossless compression no loss of data is present and it is more visually appealing than lossy compression. This paper discusses about H.264 video compression standard which is a motion-block oriented codec standard developed by ITU-T. The aim of this algorithm is to provide visually better video quality with fewer amount of information transfer. Various motion estimation algorithms are also studied.

Keywords – H.264, lossy compression, motion estimation
575-579  
03.3005/022575579
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61

Motion control - Fault diagnosis in Machines using VHDL

K.M.Krishnan, N.Rajeswaran

Abstract

Abstract- The machines which have become a part of present day life, even in some cases it overcome human working ways. So for there is major concern in functioning of motor drives because a minute faulty function of motor may lead to drastic damage in working environment. Thus before entering into the fault diagnosis of induction motor the speed control is an important aspect. The speed control in induction motor can be done using SVPWM technique. From the past several years, much progress has been made in Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology. Simplified models of neural processing in the brain have been viewed as artificial intelligence in neural networks. It's an inexpensive, reliable and non-invasive Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based fault diagnosis. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is to be used in this paper because the input data contain continuous feature. The fault diagnosis in induction motor using AI technology can be done without resuming the function of induction motor an advantage of this approach compared with other techniques for fault diagnosis[1]. This paper presents the new technique relevant to the design method of artificial intelligence based on VHDL hardware description language and FPGA implementation. The simulation results are obtained from XILINX 12.2 software.

Keywords: ai, svpwm, ann, svm, mlp, vhdl, fpga.
580-583  
03.3005/022580583
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62

IMPROVED BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION WITH ONTOLOGY

Monika Sinha, Khushboo Mathur

Abstract

Computer aided diagnosis systems for detecting Brain tumour for medical purpose have been investigated using several techniques. In this paper our concern is to presents an approach which will be useful for improved detection of brain tumour using Post -processing and Pre-processing steps of Digital image processing. The occurrence of tumour is basically due to mass or cluster formation that will help to classify the type of cancer with the processing method on MRI images for cancer detection. Taking the six variant ways of processing an image is applied on to our MRI images. The result is observed on various types of MRI images with different types of cancer regions.

Keyword: Brain cancer, Ontology, recognition, MRI.
584-588  
03.3005/022584588
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63

Computationally effecient group re-keying for time sensitive applications

Deepika Rani K, G. Praveen Babu

Abstract

Key distribution is an important problem for secure group communications. Multicast is an efficient means of distributing data in terms of resources usage. All the designated receivers or members in a multicast group share a session key. Session keys shall change dynamically to ensure both forward secrecy and backward secrecy of multicast sessions. The communication and storage complexity of multicast key distribution problem has been studied extensively. We implement a new multicast key distribution scheme whose computation complexity is significantly reduced. Instead of using conventional encryption algorithms, the scheme employs MDS codes, a class of error control codes, to distribute multicast key dynamically. This scheme drastically reduces the computation load of each group member compared to existing schemes employing traditional encryption algorithms. Easily combined with any key-tree-based schemes, this scheme provides much lower computation complexity while maintaining low and balanced communication complexity and storage complexity for secure dynamic multicast key distribution.

Keywords-distribution, multicast, MDS codes, computation complexity, erasure decoding.
589-595  
03.3005/022589595
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64

Simulation and Analysis of Genetic Algorithm Based on FPGA

B.Umamaheswari, N.Rajeswaran

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a technique that utilizes the genetic algorithm for various VLSI circuits. In GA, we proposed the method of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) is used to generate test vectors. Experiment results showed that the proposed algorithm reduce the complexity of the circuits and also the execution time. The design is realized using VHDL and then fabricated on FPGA.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm (GA), Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG), FPGA.
596-598  
03.3005/022596598
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65

Applicatio n of Fuzzy Log ic in Dela y Ana lysis in Co nstruction

Shruti Singh, Dr. M.K. Trivedi

Abstract

This paper des cribes an application of fuzzy logic in analys is o f delays in construction projects us ing Fuzzy toolbox of MATLAB Progra m So ftware. De lays in cons truction projects are inevitable and may res ult in claims and dis putes among diffe rent cons truction parties . Delays in cons truction projects can be due to a number of caus es , which need to be class ified and identified. For the s uccess of a cons truction project, es timation of like lihood of delay resulting fro m different factors is a mus t. Fuzzy logic provides a s imple way to arrive at a definite conclus ion bas ed u pon vague, imprecis e or mis s ing input informat ion. Fuzzy logic is a form of many -valued logic; it deals with reas oning that is approximate rather than fixed and e xact.

Ke ywords - Construction projects ; Fuzzy logic; De lays ; Delay caus e ; MATLAB; Fu zzy Logic Toolbo x
599-605  
03.3005/022599605
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